Amount: ₦5,000.00 |

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1-5 chapters |


This research focuses on determinant of the effective training programs. The specific objectives are; to determine the determinants of effective training program in banks, to determine if effective training program affects performance in banks, to determine the extent  to  which effective  training program affect  performance  in  banks.  Data  were collected through primary and  secondary sources. The  researcher analyzed the  data collected based on the response from the questionnaire distributed. Chi-square test statistics was used to test the hypotheses. The study found out that:- an organizational culture which supports learning, mechanisms to link training to the business strategy,

mechanisms to link training to workplace change, On the basis of the above findings, it was recommended that. On the basis of the above findings, it was recommended that:- Identification of training needs should be done more professionally in conjunction with the line manager as the individuals involved together with the HR personnel, Objectives should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely) and unambiguous, and should develop individuals as well as meet the needs of the moment, Training needs should be considered on the basis of overall company objectives, It is vital to evaluate training in order to assess its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes specified when the  training intervention is planned and to  indicate where improvements or changes are required to make the training even more effective.


1.1          INTRODUCTION

Over the years, training has been defined in various ways by different authors. Broad and Newstrom (1992), defined training in the workplace as “the effective and continuing application, by trainees to their jobs, of the knowledge and skills gained in training – both on and off the job.” According to Jackson & Schuler (2003), training refers to improving competencies needed today or very soon. Obisi (2001) defined training as a process through which the skills, talent and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies as a result of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful competencies (Wikipedia, 2011). While Nwachukwu (1992) opines that training is an organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the sufficient execution of the functions for which he was hired. He went further to say that training involves the learning and acquisition of skills needed to perform a particular job or series of jobs. While Obikoya (1996) view training as away to motivate workers to put in their best in their work in order to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in an organisation.    Broad and Newstrom also stated that, in their experience with a wide range of organizations, transfer problems nearly always occurs when training employees. Other authors have suggested that as little as 10% of training is transferred to the workplace (Georgenson, 1982), although this level may be higher immediately after training, and decline over time (Newstrom, 1986). Whatever the actual level of transfer of training, when training does not transfer, it is likely that employees will perceive training to be a waste of their time and employers will continue to question the benefit of their investment in training.

Training employees do have a significant role in modern business era. Not just to equip them with latest tools the company has implemented, there is a lot more to it (Wikipedia, 2012). According to European Centre for the Development of vocational training (1998), the need for training employees becomes important because of the following;

1.  Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills

2.  People have to work in multidimensional areas, which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation.

3.  Change in the style of management.

4.  Due to non-practical college education.

5.  Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure.

6.  For career advancement.

7.  For higher motivation and productivity.

8.  To make the job challenging and interesting.

9.  For self and development.

10. For employee motivation and retention.

11. To improve organisational climate.

12. Prevention of obsolescence.

13. To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs.

14. To keep in pace with times.

15. To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability.

16. For survival and growth of organisation and nation.

A number of authors have addressed the problem of how best to optimize the transfer of training, when best to administer training, what are the basic training needs and what the determinants of effective training are. While the focus of this chapter is specifically on the determinants of effective training, we shall also look at the strategies for improving transfer of training, and

various models of the transfer process. Therefore, some of these models will be outlined, an integrated model will be described, and then the specific strategies for optimizing the transfer of training  will  be  presented. Broad and  Newstrom (1992)  outlined  a  series of strategies  for managing the transfer of training that focused on three time periods (before, during, and after training)  and  on  the  responsibilities of three  separate organizational roles  (the  role  of the manager, the role of the trainer, and the role of the trainee). Milheim (1994) also presented a model for the transfer of training that included pre-training strategies, strategies for use during training, and post-training strategies.

The strategies suggested by these authors highlighted the importance of viewing the transfer of training as a process rather than an outcome. Other authors have developed theoretical models that the examine the impact of different training input variables such as trainee characteristics, training design variables, and work environment factors on the transfer process (Baldwin & Ford, 1988). Successful transfer of training to the workplace is not solely determined by any one factor (such as performance on the training program).

The employee’s level of motivation and ability to understand and benefit from their training are important determinants of the individual’s learning outcomes. There are also organizational and contextual  factors  that  are  necessary  requirements  for  the  effective  transfer  of  training. Kozlowski and Salas (1997) proposed a three-level model incorporating the individual level, the team or unit level, and the organizational level, which expanded how the transfer process was conceptualized. Kozlowski and Salas suggested that within each level there are complex processes involved in transfer of training and that there are also processes by which outcomes at one level combine to emerge as higher-level (that is, unit/team or organizational) outcomes.

Therefore,  it  is  proposed that  an  integrated model of the  transfer process  should examine strategies that can be applied before, during, and after training at the individual, unit/team, and organizational levels. Thayer and Teachout’s (1995) Transfer Training Model focused on several aspects of the training process that affect transfer outcomes. In particular, Thayer and Teachout highlighted the climate for transfer of training, and the transfer-enhancing activities that occurred during training program as important determinants of transfer.

Other variables in the Transfer Training Model included individually oriented variables such as trainee ability, trainee self-efficacy, previous knowledge and skill, reactions to training, and the level  of  understanding.  Locus  of  control,  job  involvement,  and  career  attitudes  were  also included as possible influences on the learning process. The main advantage of this model is that it identifies influences at the organizational level (climate for transfer) that influence individual- level outcomes.

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of successful training practices in large firms. Success in any activity can be thought of in terms of the extent to which an activity achieves its desired objectives. In this respect successful training practices are strategies which provide tangible and intangible benefits for organizations (for example, increased skills and knowledge, required corporate values and attitudes, increased competitiveness, improved employee morale, and more effective employee-manager relations). The study primarily focused on the integration of teaching and learning within the firm, factors which influence firms to recruit existing skills as opposed to developing skills sets within the firm, the use of accredited training and training packages, the development of career structures within firms, the impact of globalization on training and learning practices, and returns on their investments in training.


The growth and productivity of any organization depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of human resource training, hence the need for a well planned training to enhance the desired performance. Workers need to be carefully or properly trained and developed in order to function effectively and display certain expertise desired to achieve corporate goals.

However, the following problem prompted the need for this research;

1. Low organizational output.

2. Poor service and profit turnover in organisations.

3. Poor technical and relational skills in organizations.


The overall objective of the study is to find out the determinants of effective training program at first and Zenith bank of Nigeria Plc in Lagos:

To determine the effect of training on organizational output.

To determine the impact of training on organizational service and profit realization.

To determine the extent to which training enhance technical and relational skills in organizations.

1.4               RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:- (1) What relationship does training has with output?

(2) What impact does training have on service and profit turnover? (3) How does training improve technical and relational skills?

1.5                RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In embarking on this study the researcher has the following hypotheses to be tested:

H01 There is no significant positive relationship between training and output. H02 Training has no positive impact on service and profit turnover.

H03 Training does not improve technical and relational skills in organizations.

1.6                 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of this study evolves from the fact that in any organization, training is a prerequisite to achieving predetermine goal(s). At the end of this study, the findings will be beneficial to government, business organization, employees, management practitioners and academics. It will also serve as guide to organizations in the practice of training. To the government, the research finding will enable her and her agencies to fully explore the advantages in human resource for adequate work performance. It  will also assist  in effective planning and execution of training exercise industries in an economy, hence growth and development will be guaranteed.

To  business  organizations  the  study  will  assist  in  their  comparing  cost/benefits relationship associated with training. The study will enable organization to minimize waste or errors in training of staff thereby minimizing goals. While to employees, the study will be beneficial to them in their self developments (as in career development) and to   management  practitioners,  the   study  will  help  them  acquire  knowledge  and information necessary to serve their clients better. The academics will benefit immensely from the study for it will serve as a reference point.

1.7          SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers the determinants of effective training on banks with emphasis on First and Zenith Banks of Nigeria Plc. The research reflects on all levels of management; top, middle, and low. The study also emphasizes effectiveness in planning and implementing training program. The research lasted between 2011 to 2012

1.8                  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study is limited to the activities of determinants of effective training and in banks. The researcher use questionnaire and structured interview for data collection. The mode of the questionnaire administration will be on the spot administration. However, accuracy is limited by the fact that there may be incidences of faking just like all other questionnaire. Above all Fund will be another serious constraint as the involvement in gathering the relevant data was enormous. In spite of these constraints, comprehensive and effective research will be conducted.


First bank and Zenith Bank:

In first bank and zenith bank plc, training is conducted at intervals for old staffs. While training is conducted to enhance their performance and inculcate new ways of doing things in the organization staffs; For fresh graduates, a basic training of getting them accustomed with the basis and nature of the job is conducted.

Most of the training conducted for experienced staff is accomplished via on the job training while for fresh trainees, they are been trained in the banks’ training school for a given period of time to equip them with the basic skill and technique to face their job effectively and efficiently.

In both banks whenever the organization identifies training needs; program required to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to perform enterprise activities are put in place, that is to say once the needs are identified, a training program addressing those needs is developed.

These strategic training needs address long-term objectives to  build a capability by filling significant knowledge gaps, introducing new technologies, or implementing major changes in behavior. Examples of sources of strategic training needs in the bank include the following:

– The organization’s standard processes.

–  The organization’s strategic business plan.

–  The organization’s process improvement plan.

–  Enterprise -level initiatives.

–  Skill assessments.

–  Risk analyses.

–  Acquisition and supplier management.

The above training is been giving to Middle and top Management staff of the organization, while the low Management and trainee are only taught the basis of banking to acquaint themselves with their job.


Organization- A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose (Coulter and Robins, 1998:4)

Efficiency- It is concerned with doing the right job in the right way at the right time. It could be extended to mean the capacity of producing a maximum result with a constant input measured by comparing one entity with another (Onouha, 1999:89).

Training- This is a systematic development of the attitude and skill behavior pattern required by an individual in order to perform adequately a given task (Olise, 2003:89).

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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