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ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN WATER FISH AND SEDIMENTS OF RIVERS NIGER AND BENUE CONFLUENCE IN LOKOJA KOGI STATE CENTRAL NIGERIA

ABSTRACT The concentration of six heavy metals and six of sixteen (16) US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, fish and sediment samples of the confluence of rivers Niger and Benue were investigated in triplicates using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for the heavy metals determination and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector for the  PAHs  after  acid  digestion  of  the  samples  for  heavy  metals,liquid-liquid  and  solid-liquid extraction ...

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SYNTHESES CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKYNYLATED ANGULAR PHENOXAZINES AND ALKYNYLATED NAPHTHOQUINONES

ABSTRACT The synthesis of ten new alkynylated  derivatives of angular phenoxazine  and  alkynylated naphthoquinone    was   thoroughly   investigated.    The   first   intermediate,    6-chloro-5H- benzophenoxazin-5-one  was obtained  by the condensation  of  2-aminophenol  with 2,3- dichloro-1,4-  naphthoquinone  in  the  presence  of  anhydrous  sodium  tricarbonate  (IV)  . Thereafter,  the  intermediate  and  2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone  were  each suggested  to Sonogashira cross‚Äďcoupling reaction under copper-, amine-, and solvent free conditions at 80 oC  with  five  different  terminal  alkynes  using ...

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DEPARTMENT OF PURE AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT In this study, a series of N-pyridin-3-yl substituted acetamide has been synthesized. The reaction of phenylsulphonyl chloride with various amino acids in basic medium yielded phenylsulphonamido alkanoic acid which, on chlorination with thionyl chloride, gave acid chloride derivatives of phenylsulphonamido alkanoic  acid  in  situ.  The  acid  chloride  derivatives  on condensation with  3-aminopyridine  gave  corresponding acetamide  in  good  to excellent yield. The compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C- ...

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KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE REDOX REACTIONS OF ¬Ķ-ADIPATO-DI (N,N/ BIS(SALICYLIDENE) ETHYLENEDIAMINATOIRON (III) [(FE-SALEN)2ADI] WITH SOME THIOLS

ABSTRACT The kinetics and mechanisms of the redox reactions of oxidant,   -adipato-di(N,N/- bis(salicylidene)ethylenediaminatoiron(III),,hereafter      denoted      as Fe2adi, with the thiols L-cysteine (LSH), thiourea (USH),  thioglycolicacid(GSH),2‚Äď mercaptobenzothiazole  (BTSH)   and  benzylmercaptan   (BSH)  have  been  studied spectrophotometrically  at  495  nm  in  aqueous  perchloric  acid,  I=0.01mol  dm-3 (NaClO4) and at 29  1oC. The stoichiometry of 1:1 was obtained for Fe2adi ‚Äď LSH, Fe2adi ‚Äď GSH and Fe2adi ‚ÄďBTSH systems while 1:2 was obtained for Fe2adi ...

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HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS AND DEGRADATION EFFICIENCY OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ON ENVIRONMENT IN IBENO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AKWA IBOM STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT Heavy  metal  concentrations  and  degradation  efficiency  of  total  petroleum  hydrocarbons (TPHs) on environment in Ibeno Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom  State, Nigeria was investigated.  Experimental  design  method  was  adopted  for  this  study.  Fifteen  composite samples each of soil, leaves of Telfairia occidentalis, sediment and water were collected in December 2012 and June 2013. The sediment and water samples were collected using corer and clean plastic bottles respectively. Soil and ...

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IMPACT OF TORREFACTION ON THE FUEL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE COCONUT SHELLS CASSAVA PEELS AND THEIR BLENDS

AB STRACT The effect  of torrefaction temperature  and residence  time  on the fuel properties  of lignite,  biomass (coconut  shells and cassava peels) and their blends was investigated.  The samples were subjected  to three  torrecfaction  temperatures   (200,  260  and  300C)  and  at  two  residence  times  (10  and  20 minutes) using programmable  muffle furnace.  Blends of torrefied  lignite and biomass were prepared in two different ratios (80:20  and 70:30).  The energy content, ...

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKYLATED ISOCYANATE DERIVATIVES OF [PT2(¬Ķ-S)2(PPH3)4]

ABSTRACT The  highly nucleophilic  bridging  sulfide  centers  in  bis(őľ-sulfido)tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) diplatinum(II),    enables  the  incorporation  of any organic  functionality  (R) through facile monoalkylation to form cationic complex +.  The organic electrophiles; N,N‚Äô-(2-dichloroethyl) piperazine-4-carboxi-amine,  N-(2-chloroethyl) morpholine- 4-carboxi-amine,    and   N-(2-chloroethyl)-1-methylpiperazine-4-carboxi-amine   derived    from isocyanate were synthesised by the reactions of piperazine, morpholine and  methyl piperazine respectively  with  2-chloroethyl  isocyanate  in  diethyl  ether.  This  potentially  formed  highly functionalised  organic  electrophiles  N-(2-chloroethyl)  morpholine-4-carboxi-amine,  and N-(2- chloroethyl)-1-methylpiperazine-4-carboxi-amine ...

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZEOLITE AND ITS APPLICATION IN ADSORPTION OF NICKEL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

ABSTRACT The synthesis and characterization of zeolite and its application in adsorption of nickel from aqueous solution was investigated. Synthesis of zeolite was performed at 90 oC for 8 h. The size of the resulting crystals increased with an increase in the water content of the reaction mixture. The synthesized zeolite was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Crystal structure of the product was determined ...

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PHYTOCHEMICAL QUANTIFICATION ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ROOT EXTRACTS OF DENNETTIA TRIPETALA AND MILICIA EXCELSA

ABSTRACT The roots of Dennettia tripetala and Milicia excelsa were analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals. Five different solvents, which include methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol and water, were used for the extraction of the phytochemicals.The root of Dennettia tripetala contained alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, steroids and glycosides in varying degrees of abundance in the different solvents with tannins not detected in all the solvents. Milicia excelsa contained all ...

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EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY ASSURANCE OF FIVE BRANDS AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE CAPSULES SOLD IN THE OPEN DRUG MARKET AT NSUKKA

ABSTRACT The active drug content and weight uniformity of five brands (A ‚Äď E) of Amoxicillin Trihydrate capsules in Nsukka open drug market were evaluated to ascertain their quality assurance using UV visible spectroscopy and gravimetry. This study has shown that all the brands analyzed showed significant variations with respect to active drug content determination for the three brands B, D and E. Using United State Pharmacopoeia (USP) and British ...

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THE EFFECT OF 4-ACYL SUBSTITUENTS ON THE INFRARED STRETCHING FREQUENCIES OF SOME 1-PHENYL -3- METHYL -4- ACYLPYRAZOL -5-ONES AND THEIR MAGNESIUM (II) ,COBALT(II) COPPER (II) AND ZINC (II) CHELATES

ABSTRACT The  divalent metal chelates of  Mg,Co,Cu and Zn  with 4-acetyl (hpmap), 4- benzoyl(hpmbp),4-butyryl(hpmbup),4-capyroyl(hpmcp),4-propiony (hpmprp)   and   4-palmitoyl(hpmpp)   derivatives   of   1-phenyl   -3-methyl pyrazol-5-one have been  synthesized  and characterized by  UV ,IR,    and conductivity  measurements.  It  is  shown  that  the  ligands  behaved  like bidentate enols, all forming neutral chelates  with  the  metal ions , bonding through oxygen of the enolic hydroxyl group and  /or the  oxygen  atom of the carbonyl group of ...

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CHARACTERISATION OF THE COMPOUNDS OF THE ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF ALSTONIA BOONEI DE WILD AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS

ABSTRACT Dried and pulverised leaves of A. boonei De Wild (Apocynacea) were extracted using methanol for 48 h. The methanol  extract  obtained  was defatted  using  n-hexane  and  fractionated  using ethylacetate.   The  ethyl   acetate   fraction  of  the  extract   was   subjected   to  vacuum   liquid chromatography (VLC) in silica gel using gradients of hexane-ethyl acetate. The VLC fractions were further separated on Sephadex LH-20. A total of 10 compounds were successfully isolated and ...

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PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATION OF PRINTING INK FROM WASTE CARBON SOURCES

CHAPTER 1 1.0       INTRODUCTION Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments and or/ dyes and is used to colour a surface to produce an image,  text or design.  Ink is used for drawing and / or writing with pen,  brush,  or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letter press and lithographic printing. Chemists  view it  as a colloidal system of fine pigment  particles  dispersed ...

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FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZEOLITES AND ITS APPLICATION IN HEAVY METAL CAPTURE

ABSTRACT Zeolite crystals were synthesized by mixing sodium silicate and sodium aluminate to obtain aluminosilicate gel which was further treated hydrothermally to obtain the final product. The zeolite crystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD result identified the synthesized crystals as zeolite z; additional evidence was provided by the SEM images which showed that the zeolite crystals were disc-shaped and the particle sizes ...

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CORROSION INHIBITION OF ALUMINUM IN ACIDIC MEDIUM BY BAMBOO LEAVES EXTRACT

ABSTRACT The inhibitive effects of bamboo leaves extracts (BLE) on the corrosion of aluminum in 1M HCl were studied using weight loss, adsorption, thermodynamics  and kinetic  studies. The phytochemical  constituents  of the  BLE  were  tannins,  polyphenols,  flavonols,  terpenoids, sterols and alkaloids.  BLE was noted to contain  more of the  polyphenols  and terpenoids which were largely responsible for the inhibitive action of the extracts. Results obtained from the experiments carried out ...

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SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF VANADIUM(III) AND VANADIUM(V) USING 2-[(E)-[3-[(E)-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)METHYLENEAMINO] PHENYL]IMINOMETHYL]PHENOL

ABSTRACT 2-phenyl] iminomethyl]pheno 1   was synthesized from the condensation reaction of 1,3-diaminobenzene and 2-hydroxyzaldehyde  m dimethylformaldehyde  (DMF).  Its  coordination  characteristic  with  vanadium(III)  and vanadium(V)    complexes    was   studied    via,   UV/Visible,    IR   and   NMR    spectroscopy; stoichiometric,  melting  point  and  conductivity  determinations.  The  analytical  data  of these complexes  and the mode of bonding  show that, the ligand acted as a tetradentate  ligand via coordination through the two azomethine nitrogen and the two hydroxylic ...

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILES OF FIVE SPECIES OF MUSHROOM IN ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF TRACE METAL POLLUTED SOIL

ABSTRACT Five  species  of  Mushroom  namely  Termitomyces   robustus,  Agaricus  bisporus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Amanita phalaoides and Amanita verosa were collected from eleven  locations  in  Uke,  Abatete,  Ideani,  Nnobi,  Nnewi  (Okpuno-egbu),  Nnewi (Umudim) and Ozubulu between 2009 and 2012 in Anambra State, Nigeria.   They were  kept  in  clean  collection  bags  and  identified  by a taxonomist.  Some  of the mushroom samples were later oven dried at 75 0 C for 4 hours and ...

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LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOME BRANDS OF PASTAS IN NIGERIAN MARKET AN ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK

ABSTRACT Concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 30 brands of Nigerian and imported pastas in Nigerian market. The pasta samples were categorised into (1) noodles (2) spaghetti and (3) macaroni. Analysis were performed by GC ‚Äď MS after soxhlet extraction of the sample and clean up of the extract. The concentration of ő£16 PAHs in both the Nigerian and imported brands are in the range ...

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O-ARYLATION OF ANGULAR DIAZAPHENOXAZINE AND RELATED CARBOCYCLIC ANALOGUE USING BUCHWALD CATALYST

ABSTRACT Synthesis   of twelve   O-arylated   diazabenzophenoxazine-5-one  and  its carbocyclic  analogue  is reported  in 46  -  99  % yields.    The  intermediates were  prepared  by  anhydrous  base  catalyzed  reaction  of 2,3-dichloro-1,4- naphthoquinone  with  4,5-diamino-6-hydroxyl-2-mercaptopyrimidine  and 2- aminophenol.   The  O-arylation   process   occurred   smoothly   in  non-polar solvent,   toluene    with   the   inexpensive    base,   KPO,   at    110C.    The intermediates  were combined with a variety of electron-deficient, electrically neutral and electron-rich phenols in the presence of a ...

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