TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Transparency International Origin and Function
Background and History of
Philosophy of the Movement and the Proceedings
Organisation and Role
Main Functions and Goals
Financing and Organistion
Transparency and Success
Corruption Perception Index (CPI)
History of Corruption
The Nature of Corruption under Abacha’s Regime
Transparency International and Abacha Administration
Response of the Abahca Administration to Transparency International
TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL, ORIGIN AND FUNCTION
In this chapter I will be looking at the background and history of Transparency international, why it was created, the philosophy of the movement and its proceedings. The organisation, their role, their main function and goals, financing and organisation and also history of corruption and its definitions.
BACKGROUND AND HISTORY OF TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL
Transparency international, briefly (TI), is a non-governmental organsiation with seat, acting world-wide, in Berlin which engages itself in national and international people and economical corruption fight and raising the awareness of it. This includes, but not limited to political corruption, it publishes yearly its corruption perception index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide. Transparency international were created in 1993 in Berlin friends from all over the world engaged by the former director of world Bank Peter Eigen and developed in shortest time to one most influential non-profit and partly-political independent movement of the most recent time, which can be compared concerning it political influence, for instance with Attac or Amnesty international. The head office of Transparency international and Transparency International Germany are in Berlin. The cause for the establishment of the organisation was the idea, the world corruption, which had accepted unbelievable extents and effect in the time of the cold war to fight by independent influencing control of an outstanding and particularly control instance standing for itself.
The worldwide reasonance on the establishment of transparency international in the year 1993 was unexpected. The historical framework offered a favourable surrounding field. The old iron curtain was with the German unit finally pleases, the core of the European union joined themselves straight, the Gulf was in Iran and Iraq, the civil war in Yugoslavia humans for justice had sensitized and frame the U.S.A, “blew the democratic wind” the Clinton era. Much was ready in paying a new. The idea of transparency international fell on fruitful soil, however in response also defense and criticism provoked.
PHILOSOPHY OF THE MOVEMENT AND IT’S PROCEEDINGS
Transparency International already carry the basic concept in the name. In the variety of the different kind of corruption is according to the principles of the organisation as large common denominator, when solution, to prevent simple transparency in handling the things crucially, which it make possible, corruption leads into constructional courses. Because so paradoxically has from the point of view of this system also jedwede corruption in society and economics their sense. It is the symptoms for a malfunction in the system and if one liked to fight corruption, one must extract their fertile soil from her:
- by consistent disclosure and transparency of the things and linear path by current control by independent supervision
- by persuasive power and acceptance opposite concerning and authors.
- by careful selection and rotation of the personnel within the ranges concerned.
Multi-eye principle with financial effective control decision Complete documentation, particularly in the assignment and procurement area.
Most corruption accusation take place under poverty suffer on international level in state (South America, Africa). One of these states formed a proper vicious circle from poverty and corruption, which from own Kraft of the states hardly more is to be broken through and it makes susceptible thereby for outside political influencing control. When the fact appear particularly paradoxical that a certain “corruption impact is already presupposed” in investment funds (usually 10% of the sum total). Financed in development assistance project usually from tax funds to be the same country the corruption again. Hence, it most often in interest of foreign ruling powers or companies to promote the corruption in a country to induce if not straight, in order to enrich itself.
The beginning of transparency international is not confrontative but consenstative contrary to Amnesty international of Green peace, D. H. the government or to stand comparing head as supporters and aids on an equal footing in things corruption to the side and meet them with reason and understanding. A beginning that always does not become and pretty often in the cross fire of the criticism was gladly seen stands. Straight of others non-governmental organisation (NGO), like Attac or Green peace, those their popularity from the power of the mass and the road refer. Peter Eigen justifies this proceeding with his origin.
Someone like the director of the world Bank within the range East Africa nearly 25 years “more over the top” in the political, social and economic High Society operated, could demonstrate badly also over 60 years again with a protest poster before company building.
It had to continue, where it had stopped. Above in the executive floor, in addition, this explains the success of transparency international. Before scarcely 15 years in particularly citizen of Berlin Manson as bare vision based, applies for transparency international today as one of most successfully anti-corruption movement of the world, which operate in the meantime offices in over 90 states locally established national and chapters’ information. The work beginning of Transparency International is to work “from above” itself thus with the powerful ones made of government to set economics and society to a table and to convince it from the sinnhaftigkeit the non-corruption to. At the soundest one thing is that corruption is simply expensive the argument convenience so far most frequently to co-operate in the context of the transparency international consultation with the responsible anti-corruption expert.
ORGANISATION AND ROLE
Transparency International (TI) as a group of some 100 national chapters, with an international secretariat in Berlin, Germany originally founded in Germany in May 1993 as a not for profit organisation TI is now an international non-governmental organisation (NGO’s) and claims to be moving towards a completely democratic structure TI say of itself.
Transparency international is a global network, civil organisation leading the fight against corruption it brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world. TI’s mission is to “create change toward a world free of corruption”.
Transparency international as a global network fighting corruption in national arena in number of ways. They bring together relevant player from government civil society, business and the media to promote transparency in elections, in public administration in procurement and in business. TI global network of chapters and contact also use advocacy campaign to lobby governments to implement anti-corruption reforms.
Politically non-partisan, TI does not undertake investigation of alleged corruption or expose individual cases, but as time were work in coalition with organizations that do. It develop tools in fighting corruption and work with other civil society organizations, companies and government to implement them. TI is a non-partisan and to build coalition against corruption. Transparency international has the skills tools, expertise and broad participation to fight corruption on the ground as well as though global and regional initiative.
MAIN FUNCTIONS AND GOALS
- it help design and implement system for financial and administrative oversight of grants and project of the Americas Department (one country and multi-country) and provides administrative and logistical support to two senior programmed co-ordinators;
- being the lead co-ordinator, including financial and administrative management and monitoring of activities and result of the grants provided to TI nations in the Americas through the TI Anti-corruption. Delivery change (AD:DC) global programmes; and
- Provide lead logistical supervision and co-ordination of key regional meetings.
The works of Transparency International is around and demand in population; enterprises and politics. In order to arrange for example the annual corruption index of the countries questionnaires provided with questions how; which sector are according to their opinion affected particularly by corruption? (With a valuation of 1 (corrupt free) to 5 (particularly corrupt) as strongly their life is affected by corruption? (with valuation scale 1 (not at all) totally).
Credit it or a member of their household in the last 12 months in any form bribe paid? (Answer Yes or No). On the basis of these data monthly to be different topic diagrams for the different nations. In transparency international quarterly news type character (TIQ ) are the intermediate result as well as other messages to seen order than booklet from TI to refer free of charge event and results approximately around the world to the homepage.
In the Annual report (annual report) the analyses and research result are combined into the previous year. Additionally single results are published about special (bribe payers survey corruption special brochure) separately.
FINANCING AND ORGANISATION
The foreign officers are subject to bilateral and multilateral financing and organisation. The parent company transparency international attaches importance to the fact that the daughter offices as self-sufficient as possible in its respective homeland or operational areas to become active to be able to sense from country to country and from culture to culture other rules must be considered and be supposed. Also, the definition of corruption is individually made in each country.
Transparency international sub-divide it national offices (national chapters) in groups as regional and working groups which can act drop referred also independently. TI avoids it to interfere directly into the interest of the national chapters and depends on their international work exclusive of their structural so the local civilian – social forces are to be mobilize and promoted.
Transparency and success
The principal purpose is the idealistic vision of total and worldwide eliminating of corruption. On the way to this vision TI could already obtain some success and partial success.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL AND THE CHALLENGES OF CORRUPT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA 1993 – 1998 (A CASE STUDY OF GENERAL SANI ABACHA)>
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