- Background of the study
Secondhand smoke is the toxic waste of tobacco combustion emitted from the combination of tobacco smoke from the burning ends of cigarettes, pipes and cigars and exhaled smoke from smokers. The widespread practice of smoking in buildings exposes nonsmoking occupants to combustion by-products under conditions where airborne contaminant removal is slow and uncertain. Over the past two decades, medical science has shown that nonsmokers suffer many of the diseases of active smoking when they breathe secondhand smoke.
Several negative health effects have been associated with smoking; however these effects are not restricted to smokers only.
Secondhand smoking increases the risk of death in both adults and children.
Secondhand smoking has also been associated with increased morbidity in adults and children. The risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoking is increased by between 20% and 30% and the risk of heart disease by 30%. Even children exposed to secondhand smoking are at particular risk of developing more respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing, worsening of asthma, middle ear disease, neurobehavioral impairment and cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
Several studies have been conducted both on the burden of tobacco use and associated risk factors.
Prevalence, pattern, determinants and implications of secondhand smoking in a given population are correlated with prevalence and pattern of tobacco use and the robustness of tobacco control measures in place. Therefore understanding of prevalence, pattern, and risk factors of secondhand smoking is important in developing appropriate, integrated and comprehensive interventions for reduction of the burden of secondhand smoking. Most times higher prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure in public places than home reflects weakness or absence of smoking restrictions. In countries where smoking regulation (especially in public places) is in force, a negative correlation has been observed between tobacco restriction and prevalence of exposure to tobacco smoke at home.
High exposure of males than females is probably because most smokers in Nigeria are young, unmarried males who often smoke among their peers. Females are more conservative in the use of tobacco in Nigeria, hence are less often associated with smoking and are less likely to expose fellow females to tobacco smoke. The risk of exposure among females, especially at home is increased where a close family member or spouse is a smoker. However the trend of smoking among females in the country is on the increase and it is feared that the development may in the long run lead to increased exposure of females to cigarette smoke if adequate control measures are not put in place.
There is not a consistent pattern of rural-urban difference on prevalence of secondhand smoking in different localities. Although our study like several other studies revealed higher rural prevalence, some others have reported higher exposure to tobacco in urban communities. A study has associated high level of exposure to secondhand smoking among the rural populace with a higher tolerance of smoking and low awareness of dangers of smoking, consequent on less access to tobacco control-related health education messages. In countries where smoking regulation is in place, enforcement is more likely to be weaker in rural communities than urban communities. Second, because of the high level of activity in urban areas most people are exposed to secondhand smoking without knowing. Among the occupational groups higher prevalence of exposure was observed among semi- and un-skilled workers. Studies have revealed an association between low-socioeconomic status and higher exposure to secondhand smoking. More professionals and skilled workers were exposed to secondhand smoking in their workplaces than at home, despite being more likely to be aware of the harmful effects of tobacco smoke. This is invariably a reflection of the weakness of enforcement of anti-smoking interventions in public places. The country therefore will require more robust measures including legislation if progress must be made in protecting the public from the harmful effects of tobacco. Health education alone may not be effective in reducing exposure of individuals to smoke in public places. At present, only a few public places like airport, offices, shops and transport companies observe the ban on smoking in the country.
Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of secondhand smoking exposure due to their higher metabolism and ventilation rates as well as being less able to control their exposure to secondhand smoking compared to adults . The elimination of smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoking exposure in indoor environments. Smoke-free legislations are dependent on political will, enforcement and societal support. However while the public may be supportive of smoke-free legislation, adherence may decline rapidly if enforcement is limited or non-existent. In 2008, the Nigerian Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, passed the most comprehensive public smoking ban yet seen in the country. This ban outlawed smoking in all communal areas including restaurants, bars and workplaces . In May 2015, the national tobacco control bill was signed into law. This new tobacco control law provides new opportunities for broad scale reductions in secondhand smoking exposure in public places among youths at a national level. However till date, very little information exists on Nigerian youth exposure to secondhand smoking in public areas. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides a reliable and valid surveillance mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of the tobacco control efforts in Nigeria aimed at reducing secondhand smoking exposure among youth. Because of the low prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoking compared to most countries, measures to control tobacco use and secondhand smoking exposure should focus both on preventing smoking initiation among nonsmokers, particularly youths and women and promotion of smoking cessation programs among current smokers. These could be done by reducing the affordability of tobacco products through increased taxation and reducing the acceptability of smoking by strengthening the policy banning the use of tobacco products in public places.
Increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of smoking has shown to result in a change in the attitude of nonsmokers and also changing the behavior of smokers thereby resulting in decreasing exposure to smoke. Even though, the prevalence of secondhand smoking at home is lower than exposure in public places controlling exposure at home should be part of the integral policy aimed at reducing exposure to smoke.
- Statement of problem
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are the federal agencies that are responsible for health and safety and they recognizes that they are no known safe levels of secondhand smoking and they also recommend that exposures be reduced to the lowest possible levels. Anyone can be exposed to secondhand smoking in public places where smoking is allowed such as some restaurants, shopping centers, public transportation, parks and school and it can be harmful in many ways for instance by affecting the heart and blood vessels which helps in transporting blood around the body.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the danger of second hand smoking in lagos state. However, for the successful completion of the study, the following sub objectives were put forward by the researcher:
(i) To examine the disadvantages of second hand smoking among the youths in lagos state.
(ii) To identify the factors that exposes the youths to accidentally involve themselves in second hand smoking.
(iii) To ascertain the dangers in which second hand smoking can cause in the health system of the youths in lagos state.
(iv) To evaluate the degrees of health effect that can be caused when the youths are being exposed to second harm smoking.
1.4 Research question
For the successful completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated:
(i) What are the disadvantages of second hand smoking among the youths in lagos state?
(ii) What are the factors that exposes the youths to accidentally involve themselves in second hand smoking?
(iii) How can the dangers in which second hand smoking causes in the health system of the youths in lagos state be ascertained?
(iv) How can the degrees of health effect that are caused when the youths are being exposed to second hand smoking be evaluated?
1.5 Significance of the study
It is conceived that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great benefit to the youths that are exposed to the dangers of second hand smoking in lagos state; the study will also be of great benefit to the users of the social media on delivering adequate information to the international scene.
It is conceived that the study will also be of great importance to researcher who are in need of information on similar field. Finally, the study will also be of great importance to lecturers, teacher’s students and the general public.
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study is the dangers of second hand smoking in lagos state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:
- Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
- Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 Definition of terms
The possibility of suffering harm or injury.
Youth is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood.
Second hand smoking
It is an unwanted smoke that people breathe in from cigarettes that other people are smoking.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
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