Amount: ₦5,000.00 |

Format: Ms Word |

1-5 chapters |


Instructional materials are materials used to impact knowledge into the mind of learners, this material can either be visual or audio-visual. Improvised instructional materials are those teaching and learning materials produced using locally available resources with the help of experts. The paper visualized the importance of improvised instructional material for the teaching of home economics at all levels of education, highlighted some of the improviseable alternatives to standard equipment, pointed out the role of students, school authority and government in this important educational innovation so as to achieve the stated educational goals.













Background of the study

Statement of problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research questions

Definition of terms


Literature review



Research design

Administration of questionnaire


Method of data collection

Reliability and validity of instrument

Method of data analysis


Presentation and analysis of data

Responses made by school heads

Responses made by teachers


Summary of finding








  • Background of the study

The universal basic education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things to facilitate the standard of literacy and improve societal development, the UBE is a nine year programame that cover six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as upper basic (Basic 7-9). This upper basic level is aimed at preparing the youths for gainful employment or progression into the senior secondary level and subsequent admission into higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Undoubtedly, these functions are very essential to the survival, enhancement and development of the Nigeria society. However, the extent to which the upper basic education level achieves the set aims is largely dependent on the various subjects in the curriculum and how they are taught in schools. Home economics is one of the vocational subject taught at the upper basic level of the Nigerian education system as a compulsory part of the curriculum. It is taught as an integral core subject which comprises food and nutrition, clothing and textile and home management. Home economics is an interdisciplinary field of study which helps families and individuals to understand and adopt to the effects of social economics, cultural and technological changes. Archurst and Anyakoha (2004) described it as an applied science subject which is dependent on the integration of different academic disciplines such as the natural sciences i.e. biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and health science. The social sciences i.e. sociology, political science, economics, philosophy, psychology and art in solving problems of families and individuals. Home economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills for self reliance/self employment and paid employment. The importance of exposing learners to home economics curriculum for individual and societal development has been widely acknowledge for instance, Her Majesty Inspectorate of Education (HMIE, 2009) stated that the knowledge and skills gained with home economics make a considerable contribution to young people personal and social development as  well as prepare them for the world of work in a wide range of areas retarded to aspects the subject. It provides learners with opportunities to develop knowledge and in both theoretical and practical aspects of livelihood (ministry of Education and Skills Development, 2012). The acquisition of such knowledge and skill has the capacity to argument inspire productivity and further income generating life endeavors among people. A strong background in home economics curriculums is crucial for many careers and job opportunities in today’s increasingly technologically society. To accommodate the various multidisciplinary area and skills in home economics and position it to prepare Nigerian students for global participation, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2008) reviewed and reoriented is curriculum to have a broad scope that covers virtually all aspects of human daily living. According to the NERDEC (2008), the reviewed upper basic home economics curriculum is built on the 9-year basic education philosophy that seeks to provide quality learning experiences and pay attention to the all around development of the individuals. Among the aims of the curriculum is to provide students with changes in a technological, socio-economic and multi-cultural society, contemporary societal issues have been integrated in the curriculum more practical lesson are introduced, and lessons are organized in modules with specifications on a variety of instructional material including instructional technologies for teaching. It is expected that if properly implemented the curriculum would cater for a diverse range of students abilities help the students to learn practical skills which would be useful to them in higher education or enable them get jobs in industries or other formal sectors of the economy. Effective implementation of the curriculum would require the use of instructional materials. Opera (2002) sees instructional materials as information carriers designed specifically to fulfill objectives in teaching learning situation. Okeke (2005) is of the view that instructional materials are all the physical (man-made and material that are real and improvised) resources meant to be used by the facilitator in the process of teaching and learning. These materials may be used singly or in combination in some cases, they could be used in an information and formal way. This shows that teachers vary the methods of utilizing instructional materials during instruction to effect changes in the behaviour of the learners. Certainly the appropriate use of instructional materials goes a long way in improving teaching and learning, arousing interest and enhancing student’s affective responses. Furthermore, Okoro (2005) adds that home economics as an integral part of the school curriculum. Unlike any other subject, it is primarily concerned with helping the individual live a useful and satisfying life as well as improvement of family living which will in turn lead to the improvement of towns and villages as well as the nation. As a profession, home economics education trains an individual to be self-reliant it is a job creator in the family society and nation. Okoro and Ossais views tends to recognize the relevance of home economics not only to the individual but also to the family, community and the nation at large. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) advocates for the availability and use of various kinds of instructional materials for effective instruction as well as the production of self reliant individual. One of the subjects that requires enough instructional materials for its impartation as well enable a person to be self reliant, self-employed as well as join vocational centres is home economics. Individual and the society have sees education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to impacting positively to the survival of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education. Thus, education is a behaviour characteristics, it impact skills, attitudes, belief to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills it enable an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals destiny. Indeed, instructional materials provides concepts and attitudes to the students which improved his skills, ability to reason and makes him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. Education has helped to being the entire world into an entry through the information and knowledge education has helps us to achieve. Education has helped to reduce the problem of language barrier through instructions and teaching by our teacher’s individual has acquired different languages outside the traditional language. This led to individual to associate properly with people from different countries. It has also help one to adjust from traditional behaviour to a more modest behaviour that makes the individual to be accommodated any part of the world he or she visits. Education has been means to an end that a country is developed is as a result of instructional aid created by education. It serves as catalyst to governmental principles, policies and laws. With the acquisition of knowledge and society structured their means of livelihood. Instructional materials is an aid to teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials makes teaching and learning interesting easy and using it makes learning more effective. In another development, the use of instructional materials makes different continents to shape their rules and regulation to accommodate the other this they do by providing them with the socio-cultural and political differences and how to adjust the traditional socio-cultural and political ways and accommodate another. As instructional materials makes students understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working model. It makes the teacher task easier and more effective. Olardi (1990) has highlighted the impact of instructional materials that teachers use to improve the students form understanding and perception of the subject as an enhanced acids. It brings clarity and creates recognition that allows them to have a realistic hand and a total knowledge of the subject. It enhanced learning, improve the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students. Teaching and learning through the use of instructional materials facilitates stimulates and aids students to take active interest in any topic introduced  by the teacher. Instructional materials has emotional impact on the students of Owan West Local Government Area and affects their attitude towards what is presented as topic to study by the teacher. It provides both the teacher and students with relevance and meaningful source of information. Kay (2008) instructional materials stimulate the students desire to learn. It assist learning process by making assimilation and memorization to materials easy. Also it helps to include greater acquisition and as well as objectives which may be inaccessible to many students. Finally, an instructional materials makes learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the students content.


  • Statement of problem

Home Economics has to do with the study of activities that relate to the home and the family. It is an applied science and a vocational subject offered in some primary school level. Despite it‚Äôs rich content as stated in the curriculum, the subject still records some set backs in students achievement in foods and nutrition. The result of some of the primary school students as shown by the Edo State Examination Development Center (EDC) (2012) reveals that the academic achievement of those students especially in foods and nutrition has reduced drastically. This may be due to the nature of teaching method adopted by teachers in teaching the subject such as lecture method, dictation method or story telling which do not foster critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving skills as well as interest. Basically, teaching-learning process in Home Economics should be learn‚Äďcentered because it is a practically oriented subject mandatory for students to engage in active practical activities.


1.3 Objective of the study                                        

The main objective of the study is the adequacy of instructional materials for teaching home economics in some selected primary school in Owan west Local Government Area of Edo state. However, for the successful completion of the study, the following sub objectives were put forward by the researcher:

(i)To examine the relationship between the instructional materials and the cognitive academic performance of home economics of the primary school students.

(ii) To identify the impact of the instructional materials on the effective academic performance of home economics of the primary school students.

(iii)To explore certain factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the primary school students from learning home economics effectively in order to enhance their performance.

(iv)To investigate the extent in which the school location may also affect the academic performance of the primary school students.



  • Research question

For the successful completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated:

(i) Is there any relationship between the instructional materials and the cognitive academic performance of home economics of the primary school students?

(ii) To what extent do the instructional materials impact on the effective academic performance of home economics of the primary school students?

(iii) How can certain factors such as class size promote or inhibit the primary school students from learning home economics effectively in order to enhance their performance be explored?

(iv) To what extent does the school location has on the academic performance of the primary school students?


  • Significance of the study

First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in primary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners where conducting a research on the impact of instructional materials on teaching.

Again the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides has is for the falling standard of learning in the country.

Furthermore, the study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents teachers meeting such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solution.


1.6 Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study is the adequacy of instructional materials for teaching home economics in some selected primary school in Owan west Local Government Area of Edo state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


  • Definition of terms


A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers.

School environment

A school environment is a school that has appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms, available school based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety, security, climate and culture of the school.


Academic achievement

Academic achievement¬†refers to a student’s success in meeting short or long term goals in education.



Adequacy is simply the state of sufficiency.

Instructional materials

Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.



Teaching is the art and science of helping others to grow in their knowledge and understanding.


Home economics

Home economics is the profession and field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community.


Primary school

A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve coming after pre-school and before secondary school.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



A1Project Hub Support Team Are Always (24/7) Online To Help You With Your Project

Chat Us on WhatsApp ¬Ľ 09063590000


  09063590000 (Country Code: +234)

Related Project Topics :

Choose Project Department