EFFECT OF BUSH BURNING AND THE USE OF PESTICIDES ON MAIZE YIELD

Amount: ₦5,000.00 |

Format: Ms Word |

1-5 chapters |




Abstract

Agricultural land use and the management of agricultural lands in Nigeria as evidenced from farmer practices have been analyzed using descriptive and chi-square analysis. The analysis shows that different land management practices affect crop yields differently in the different ecological zones. Also, the types of land management practices farmers use differ across the different ecological zones. The policy implication is that agricultural interventions should be developed on the basis of agro-ecological zones, and blanket crop improvement packages should be avoided. The recommended policy action is that food crop farmers should be helped to improve the management of their agricultural lands by ecological zones at two levels. First, the practices that are common and promote agricultural production in each zone should be targeted for improvement. Such a policy will re-orient farmers towards the adoption of more sustainable farm practices. Second, land management practices that are not currently being used by farmers in each zone but have potential to improve crop production should be identified and promoted in the respective agro-ecological zones.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Maize (Zea mays L.) and Guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) are important food crops in Nigeria, widely grown in the savanna regions of the country. These crops form the staple foods for most of the population especially in areas adaptable for their production. Green maize (fresh grains) is eaten roasted or boiled on the cob. The ripe grains (of maize or sorghum) are cooked in combination with pulses or milled and boiled as porridge (Yoruba = Eko, Hausa = Kamu, Ibo = Akamu). Sorghum (Guinea Corn) uses vary from drinks to ‚Äėtuwo‚Äô. The stems are used for fuel and building of fences and local huts. Maize and guinea corn are used as basal ingredients of livestock feeds. They are rich in Carbohydrates. In spite of the importance of these cereals as sources of food for human consumption, their production is concentrated in the hands of peasant farmers whose average hectarage is very small, approximately 0.5 ‚Äď 1.0 hectare per farmer. The technologies are basically traditional farming methods and systems. An estimated one million hectares of land was planted to maize in the country in 1989/1990 and over 40% of this was cultivated in the northern states (NAERLS, 1982). This figure has been increasing steadily ever since, with the help of irrigation especially in the drier parts of the north (Sahel and Sudan). Average yield per hectare in the northern savannas on peasant farms is about 0.6 metric tonnes, while commercial farms average is about 2.0 metric tonnes/ha. Guinea corn, on the other hand, is grown in an estimated 300,000 hectares of land north of the Niger and Benue rivers, especially in areas generally too dry for consistent and reliable maize production. Average yield in both peasant farms and commercial setup is 0.40 metric tonnes/ha and 1.0 metric tonnes/ha respectively. Varieties of these cereals (maize and sorghum) planted in these areas are both local, improved local and hybrids. Plant breeders in I.A.R. (Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria) have produced suitable varieties adapted to different ecological zones of the savanna where the crops are grown. Suitable yields of the improved crops have also been packaged. However, a number of constraints (crop protection problems) militate against the production of those crops. Maize (Zea mays) is an important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived savannah zones of Nigeria. It is a very important staple food consumed by millions of Nigerians. Studies in maize production and marketing in different parts of the country have shown an increasing importance of this crop, amidst growing utilization by food processing industries and livestock feed mills. The crop has thus become a local ‚Äúcash crop‚ÄĚ most especially in the south western part of Nigeria, where at least 30 per cent of the cropland has been put to maize production under various cropping systems (Ayeni, et al., 1991). The continued cultivation of maize as a staple food is however threatened by a number of problems, including those of diseases and pests. Most of maize varieties are highly susceptible to downy mildew disease, maize rust, leaf blight, maize streak, maize mottle / chronic stunt, curvularia leaf spot, stalk and ear rots (Iken, .et al., 2004.). Insect pests, such as stem borers, armyworms, silkworms, grasshoppers, termites and weevils also affect the yield of the crop. Effective control of these pests and diseases require the use of chemical agents called pesticides. The chemical agents called pesticides include herbicides (for weed control), insecticides, and fungicides. Although some pesticides have been termed as major organic pollutants due to effects of their source chemicals both on human health and the environment at large, yet some of these chemicals are safe. There is a high probability that pesticide use and pesticide ‚Äď induced side effects will grow more rapidly in developing countries as a whole than in the developed ones (Yudelman et al., 1998). This is because of weak regulations banning the importation and use of dangerous chemicals and the inactivity or absence of government and non – government environmental control agencies. Despite the fact that dozens of pesticides are banned, severely restricted or unregistered in many countries and despite their having been listed as hazardous by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Fajewonyomi (1995) stated that many of them are still widely promoted and applied especially in developing countries where weak controls and dangerous work conditions make their impact even more devastating. Papworth and Paharia (1978) stated that since pesticides by their very nature are toxic and can be hazardous to users if not handled properly, their regulation through registration is of great value to developing countries. As more land is being cleared and prepared for cropping annually, burning has become the easiest and most convenient method quite often employed. In many areas, the attitude changed to one of total burning (wildfire) and this becomes a major cause of depletion of nutrient status. This necessitates a research of this kind to ascertain the effect of such localized burnings and fires on the soil and its subsequent effect on crop production. The vast majority of area burnt and cleared annually for cropping, to drive game for hunters, to improve grazing condition for livestock and for migration and land settlement lies within the savanna ecological zone (Isah and Adegeye, 2002). This practice invariably results in heating and drying of the soil. The soil temperature reached during such burnings ranged from 93o to 1004o C as a result of burning different types of materials and the time of exposure to heating (Roberts, 1965; Landelout, 1964; Isaac and Hopkins, 1937). All fires, regardless of whether they are natural or human-caused, alter the cycling of nutrients and the biotic, physical, moisture, and temperature characteristics of soil (Isaac and Hopkins, 1937). In many cases however, these impacts are either negligible or short-lived and thus have little, if any, impact on the overall ecosystem. In some cases however, the impact of fire on soil conditions can be moderate to severe. The overall degree and longevity of this impact is determined by numerous factors including fire severity, temperature, fire frequency, soil type and moisture, vegetation type and amount, topography, season of burning, and pre- and post-fire weather conditions. Studies by Smith (1968) and Kershaw and Rouse (1976) pointed out that relatively large-scale loss of nutrients and an alteration of soil physical conditions occur after a fire. Past researchers have identified many firerelated impacts on soil conditions. They have divided them into the following categories: Physical and Chemical Properties, Nutrient Properties, Soil Temperature, Soil Moisture, and Soil Biota. In general, when compared to the impacts felt by other ecosystem components, fire effects on soil are typically minor, are often short-lived and can be either positive or negative, with degree of impact increasing with increased fire severity (Haase et al. 1988).

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Annual bush burning and slash and burn practices have become a pre-occupation in the savannah ecological zone of West Africa (Oguntala, 1980). Each year millions of hectares are burnt without regard to the persistent questions like: what is the precise nature and extent of the effects of burning on the fertility of such soils, what are the long-term effect, what benefits, if any does fire confer on the soil and what is the beneficial effect or disadvantage of ‚Äėprescribed burning‚Äô on the soil? It is therefore obvious that changes do occur after soil heating most especially after a fire, but to what extent do these changes affect the soil and the ultimate goal of food production. it is in view of this that that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of bush burning and the use of pesticides on maize yield.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the effect of bush burning and the use of pesticides on maize yield; but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective;

  1. To ascertain the effect of bush burning on maize yield among local farmers
  2. To examine the effect of pesticide on the quality of maize production
  • To examine the relationship between pesticides and bush burning on maize production
  1. To examine the consequences of pesticide on the maize yield
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: bush burning does not have any effect on maize yield among local farmers

H1: bush burning does have an effect on maize yield among local farmers

H0: there is no significant relationship between pesticides and bush burning on maize production

H2: there is a significant relationship between pesticides and bush burning on maize production

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to rural farmers as the researcher intend to explore the consequences of bush burning and the use of pest control on maize yield, the study will also be of importance to the ministry of agriculture in all the state across Nigeria as the findings will help them in formulation of policies that will guide and educate the farmers on the dangers of pesticides and bush burning and it consequences on maize yield. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research. Finally the study will be of great importance to academia’s, students, teachers, lecturers, and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature and also add to the knowledge

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers the effect of bush burning and the use of pesticides on maize yields, in the cause of the study, there were some factors that limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study.

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Bush burning

Bush burning is the act of setting forests, weeds and grasses on fire. Farmers clear farmland in preparation for the planting season. The weeds and grasses cleared are often burnt. Forest is a large area of land that is thickly covered with trees. The trees naturally grow on their own or are cultivated by man for different purposes. Mammals, birds and reptiles make the forest their habitat.

Pesticide

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides  nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide

Maize

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study



This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research


EFFECT OF BUSH BURNING AND THE USE OF PESTICIDES ON MAIZE YIELD

NOT THE TOPIC YOU ARE LOOKING FOR?



A1Project Hub Support Team Are Always (24/7) Online To Help You With Your Project

Chat Us on WhatsApp ¬Ľ 09063590000

DO YOU NEED CLARIFICATION? CALL OUR HELP DESK:

  09063590000 (Country Code: +234)
 
YOU CAN REACH OUR SUPPORT TEAM VIA MAIL: [email protected]


Related Project Topics :

Choose Project Department