CRIME AND STATE SECURITY AGENCIES IN NIGERIA

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Abstract

The study examined the insecurity situation in Nigeria and its implications for business investment, operations and sustainable development. The evaluation of the level and dimension of insecurity which was based on secondary data and observations among authors in different places, zones and walks of life as expressed in their comments, as well as, on concrete evidences of insecurity incidence in different parts of Nigeria, indicated that the insecurity challenge in the country is enormous and complex and would continue to be, if the situation remains unabated. We therefore emphasized the need to evolve a safe business environment that allows for effective business activities and a sustainable development process. The security management models recommended to achieve this, are aimed at combating the creators and perpetuators of situations of insecurity, and simultaneously addressing and removing the sources of dissatisfaction and discontentment which spur security breaches and the involvement of all stakeholders both in public and private capacity-government, business organizations, civil society, religious groups, communities and individuals- to supply resources, expertise and information that are required to ensure a safe environment.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. This has made national security threat to be a major issue for the government and has prompted huge allocation of the national budget to security. In order to ameliorate the incidence of crime, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2011, installation of Computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at deterring or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media (Azazi, 2011). Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high. In addition, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying a worsened state of insecurity in the country. Hence, Adagba, et al (2012), Uhunmwuangho and Aluforo (2011) are of the view that the efforts of government have not yielded enough positive result. With the lingering security challenges and the inability of the security apparatus of the government to guarantee safety and security in the country, the question that borders everyone in Nigeria today is that ‚Äúcan there be security?‚ÄĚ Is security of lives and properties achievable? Apparently, the security situation in Nigeria appears or at least have remained insurmountable and many people have argued that government at all levels has not done enough by not confronting the situation head on and dealing with it decisively, others have argued that the situation has a political undertone or inclination calculated to serve the interest of certain political gods, who have been dissatisfied and disgruntled about the political manifestations in the country. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on insecurity by integrating diverse explorations and to propose a strategy for security management. In the following sections, we examine first, the concept of insecurity, the causes of insecurity in the country so as to provide a background for understanding and appreciating the enormity of the problem and our proposed model for security management in Nigeria. This is followed by an exploration of the connection between security environment and business activities and an evaluation of the Nigerian security situation and its implications for business and sustainable development. Finally, in consonance with the call on everyone by government, to contribute to the war against insecurity, the paper proposes a security management model that could assist in managing security challenges in the country.¬†¬† Conflict is one of the central features of political life, this is because societies compete for scarce resources. In the same vein, conflict affects all human endeavour; from political, economic and religious, to social aspects of life. Essentially, instability has been a common phenomenon in African continent especially from the beginning of the twentieth-century. Even though peace is relatively being restored to the continent after many years of violent conflicts as witnessed in Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Cote d‚ÄôIvoire and Democratic Republic of Congo, to mention a few, the continent is far from having policies that promote people‚Äôs security. Thus, the search for a common security concept at the regional level is a basic challenge to African government. It is often forgotten that the security sector role in the political stability of a state is highly dependent on the character of the state‚Äôs social, cultural, economic, political structures, policies and practices put in place. As a matter of fact, security remains a problematic issue in the continent. One of the main obstacles to sustainable peace and security in Africa is the exploitative and predatory relationship between security institutions of the state and the general population, in which the latter are more victims than beneficiaries of ill-motivated, ill-trained and ill-governed security institutions (Ebo, 2007:49). Beyond the large scale conflict in Africa, including armed violence, inter-security agencies conflict has been a common recurrent issue. This has been so because of the inability of various countries to deal with wider security threats in the border. The likelihood that a nation‚Äôs security agencies will come into conflict with some other nation‚Äôs security agencies is possible, given the increase in number and strength of such nations‚Äô transnational interests and commitments. Indeed, the geo-strategic location of Nigeria in the continent, and the ethno-cultural linkages of Nigeria‚Äôs border communities of neighbouring countries not only allow transnational trade, but also allow free flow of aliens. Even more pertinent is Nigeria‚Äôs porous border which allows illegal drugs, encourages human trafficking, arms and ammunition and illegal bunkering Crime control and prevention all over the world has been a topic of study for academics and practitioners alike, and is defined as the process of legally gathering evidence of a crime that has been or is being committed (Brown, 2001). It seeks to identify the truths associated with how and why a crime occurred, and works toward building a case that may lead to the successful prosecution of the offender(s) (Hinduja, 2009). Research studies mentioned above and more have sought to determine the best way in which the investigative process can be conducted and managed. The overarching goal of these studies has been to enable police/ law enforcement departments to reflect upon their own practices against the backdrop of the findings, and then to implement salient positive changes which would improve the day-to-day operations of their organization. Security of life and property is a fundamental human right guaranteed under the 1999 constitution. Efforts have been made by successive administrations, especially since 1999 to provide this. However, growing poverty, wide income disparities, high level of unemployment, social dislocation caused by massive rural ‚Äď urban migration and the breakdown of societal values leading to business frauds (419, drug abuse, money laundry, among others), and community unrest account for the growing concern about the level of uncertainty and security in parts of the country (Besley, Persson, & Sturm, 2010; Hinduja, 2009). In Nigeria the institutions that were established to guarantee security to the ordinary citizen are perceived to be incapacitated by limited manpower and skills relative to society‚Äüs demand, poor funding, poor equipment and general lack of proper orientation and commitment by some operatives (Alemika, 2003; Hinduja, 2009). It is well recognized all over the world that peace and security of life and property are the primary conditions for progress and development of any society (Besley, Persson, & Sturm, 2010). In line with this, the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria provides that the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government. All over the world, however, the principal agency charged with the responsibility of internal peace and security of nations is the police. As a result, a lot of powers are given to the police to enable it perform its duties. The 1999 Nigerian Constitution provides for the establishment of the Nigeria Police Force under section 214. It provides that there shall be a Police Force, and subject to the provisions of the constitution, no other police force shall be established for the country.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A major responsibility of modern states is providing security for lives and properties of their citizens. In its ordinary usage, security borders on safety and absence of dangerous conditions (Ajayi, 2015, p). Security is a necessity in every human society and its absence threatens the survival of individuals and their properties. However, no state can claim to supply one hundred percent security for her people, because no state is devoid of crime and other security challenges (Iyang and Abraham, 2014). Reports received daily of criminal activities by various policing agencies around the globe indicates that crime is a phenomenon that cannot be completely eradicated from any society. Consequently, various means of containing and managing security to achieve the lowest possible crime rate with optimum resource expenditure have been developed by state governments around the world. It is in view of the above that the researcher intend to investigate crime and state security agencies.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to investigate crime and state security agencies in Bayelsa state; but to aid the completion of the study, the he researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective;

  1. To ascertain the factors responsible for insecurity in the state
  2. To examine the role of security agencies in curbing crime in the society
  • To examine the effect of state security agencies in securing lives and property of her citizens
  1. To examine if there is any significant relationship between crime and insecurity in Nigeria
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: there is no significant relationship between crime and insecurity in Nigeria

H1: there is a significant relationship between crime and insecurity in Nigeria

H0: security agencies do not play any significant role in curbing crime in the society

H2: security agencies do play a significant role in curbing crime in the society

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to the state apparatus as the study seek to explore the challenges encountered by state security agencies in curbing crime in the state, the study will also be of importance to the Nigeria police force in combatting crime and criminalities in the state as the study seek to explore the merit of collaboration between the security agencies and the state apparatus in ensuring community policing in the study area in Bayelsa state. The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point for further study. Finally, the study will be useful to researchers, academia’s, students, teachers and the general public as the study will contribute to knowledge and also add to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers crime and state security agencies in Bayelsa state. But in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Crime

In ordinary language, a¬†crime¬†is an unlawful act punishable by a¬†state¬†or other authority. The term “crime” does not, in modern¬†criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,¬†though¬†statutory¬†definitions have been provided for certain purposes.

 

Security

Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces

Security agency

A¬†security agency¬†is a¬†governmental organization¬†which conducts¬†intelligence¬†activities for the¬†internal security¬†of a¬†nation. They are the domestic cousins of foreign¬†intelligence agencies, and typically conduct¬†counterintelligence¬†to thwart other countries’ foreign intelligence efforts.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.

Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.



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