1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
In this study, we examine the contributions of global system of mobile communication to the development of education among students of Taraba state. As a result, this study employs a descriptive survey research design and while questionnaire administered to one hundred and thirty three respondents randomly selected from institution of learning in Taraba state, Questionnaire was used as a major instrument of data collection. The resultant findings clearly indicate that wireless communication cum GSM has considerable influence on the growth and development of education in the state.
- Background of the study
The world is fast becoming a global village and a necessary tool for this process is communication, of which telecommunication is a key player. The level of development in the telecommunications industry around the globe is pervasive as one innovation replaces another in just matter of weeks. A major breakthrough is the wireless telephone system, which comes in either fixed wireless lines or the global system for mobile communication (GSM) (Wojuade, 2005). Communication is fundamentally a major driver of any economy and education. Nigeria is not left out in the race for rapid developments, as the years of economic reversal as a result of mismanagement have had adverse effects on its rate of growth and development. The Nigerian telecommunications sector was wholly under-developed until the sector was deregulated under the military regime in 1992 with the establishment of a regulatory body, the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC). Since then, the NCC has issued various licences to private telephone operators. These licences allow Private Telephone Operators (PTOS) to roll out both fixed wireless telephone lines and analogue mobile phones. The advent of democracy in 1999 however paved the way for the granting of GSM licences to three inaugural service providers viz MTN, ECONET (which earlier changed its name to V-MOBILE, Zain, Celtel and now Airtel) and NITEL Plc in 2001; with GLOBACOM joining in 2003 and more recentlyEmirates Telecommunications Corporation, branded trade name Etisalat, (http://www.radioeonics.com). Etisalat Nigeria commenced commercial operations on 23rd October 2008 with a promise to deliver innovative and quality services in Nigeria. Since then, Nigeria has continued to witness its innovative services (Wikipedia, free encyclopedia) The development of GSM in the world was prompted by the need to provide seamless telecommunications through Europe. Back in the early 1980s, analogue mobile telephony was growing rapidly and operators find it increasingly difficult to interconnect the various networks in Europe (http://www.radioeonics.com). This was so because each implementation of the analogue service was fundamentally different, which made inter-working a serious challenge. To address this challenge, a study group called ‘Group Special Mobile’ (where GSM got its name) was formed and was tasked to provide a standardized system for mobile telephony. Today, GSM covers over 1.2 billion users on 630. The development of telecommunication in the world began in the 1830s. The first commercial electrical telegraphy was constructed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Forthergill Cooke (Ajayi et al., 2008), and they both viewed their device as “improvement to the existing electromagnetic telegraphy” (International Telecommunication Union ITU). Samuel Morse on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean independently developed another version of electrical telegraphy that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2nd September, 1837. There after, Alfred Vail developed another version of the technology and this was successfully demonstrated on 6th January, 1938. The first transatlantic telegraphy label allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time was successfully completed on 27th July, 1866. Alexander Bell invented the conventional telephone in 1876 and the first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 in both Haven and London (ITU, 1999). Further development of telecoms in the world was prompted by the need to provide seamless telecommunications throughout Europe. In the early 1980s, analogue mobile telephony grew rapidly and operators found it increasingly difficult to interconnect the various networks in Europe. On the basis of this, a study group 38 J. Econ. Int. Financ. called “Group Special Mobile” was formed and was tasked to provide a standardized system for mobile telephony, which was realized seven years later. In the year 1990, there were only 11 million subscribers world wide, but the introduction of digital services in the early 1990s, combined with competitive service provision and a shift to prepaid billing, spurred rapid growth in demand. However, Nigeria has not been left out of this race for rapid development of telecommunication, although the journey to success in the milieu had been long and tortuous. The development of telecommunications facilities in Nigeria began in 1886 when a cable connection was established between Lagos and London by the colonial administration (Adegboyega, 2008). From the very beginning, it was clear that the introduction of telephone services in the country was not induced by economic or commercial motives. It was not meant to enhance economic growth, but it was originally developed as a tool for colonial subjugation (Mazango, 1998). For this reason, by 1893, government offices in Lagos were provided with telephone service, which were later extended to Ilorin and Jebba in the hinterland. A slow but steady process of development in the years that followed led to the gradual formation of the nucleus of a national telecommunication networks (Ajayi et al., 2008:1). However, as the European mercantile activities gained foothold in the country, the first commercial trunk telephone service was established to link Itu and Calabar in 1923. Between 1946 and 1952, a three channel line carrier system was commissioned between Lagos and Ibadan and was later extended to Oshogbo, Kaduna, Kano, Benin and Enugu; Thus, connecting the colonial office in London with the commercial centers in Nigeria (Adegboyega, 2008; Ajayi et al., 2008). In those early days, services were primitive and the coordinated pegboard switching system was used. This later progressed to manual switchboards of different sizes, shapes, and capacities until stronger exchanges were installed into the national network at Lagos Island, Ikeja, Ebute Meta, Apapa and Port Harcourt between 1955 and 1960. The telegraphy service also witnessed a parallel development, from telegraph delivery by way of manual coordinated pegboard switching to the use of Morse code for telex switching. As at 1960, a manual telex exchange of sixty subscriber lines were in service in Lagos. All the above efforts were essentially aimed at improving internal telephone services in Nigeria. At independence in 1960, with a population of roughly 45 million people, the country only had about 18,724 phone lines for use. This translated to a Tele-density of about 0.5 telephone lines per 1000 people. The telephone network consisted of 121 exchanges of which 116 were of the manual (magneto) type and only 5 were automatic. Between independence in 1960 and 1985, telecoms services become commercialized. The old department of Post and Telecommunications (P & T) under the Ministry of Communications became separated and Nigeria External Telecommunications Limited (N.E.T) was created to take care of external telecoms services while the old P&T handled internal network (Salawu, 2008). By January 1985, the erstwhile (P & T) Post and Telecommunications divisions merged with NET to form Nigeria Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) a government owned Limited Liability Company. The objective of establishing NITEL was to harmonize the planning and coordination of the internal and external communications services, rationalize investments in telecoms development and provide accessible, efficient and affordably services. NITEL, the only national monopoly operator in the sector, was synonymous with epileptic services and bad management which made telephone then to be unreliable, congested, and expensive and customer unfriendly. According to Ajayi et al. (2008), the years 1992 to 1999 was tagged as the partial liberalization era, when government embarked on market – oriented, partially liberalizing the Nigerian telecommunication sector via NCC Decree 75 of 1992. The reforms include separation of the policy – making body from industry regulator and networks operators/service providers, and licensing of network operator service providers which began in 1996. Despite the huge potentials offered by the Nigerian telecom market, progress was slow due to political uncertainties and perceived policy inconsistencies as NITEL still continued to retain monopoly power over voice telephony in both national and long distance international calls (Ajayi et al., 2008). Adegboyega (2008), and Ndukwe (2008), both argued that this period was dominated by chaotic, hopeless and frustrating circumstances. The Network was bad, there was weak infrastructural base, huge unmet demand, concentration of lines in selected urban centers, slow growth of subscriber base as well as limited investment”. The Nigeria’s telecom sector witnessed a major revolution in 2001 with the granting of the global system for mobile telecommunication (GSM) license to providers. The target of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) and the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) for the telecommunication sector include: Attainment of Tele-density (number of telephone lines in relation to population) of 1.25 by the year 2008. Prior to this, Nigeria maintained an unenviable record as the world’s third lowest, after Mongolia and Afghanistan, with a Tele-density of 0.73% before 1999 (OKereocha, 2008). This essentially can be achieved with the advent of mobile telecommunication (GSM) that has resulted in a dramatic increase in the total number of lines from 866,782 in 1999, to over 60 million lines, in year 2008 out of which GSM operators accounted for 57, 622, 901 lines, fixed line operators accounted for 2,537,504 code division multiple access, CDMA, operators connected 780,938 lines (Ndukwe, 2008). This recent drive in telecom reform policy initiatives has made noticeable impacts on Nigeria.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the most dramatic advances in communication potential- data communications- is found in the field of computer technology. Since the first development of the modern electronic digital computers in the 1940s, computerization has infiltrated almost every area of society in nations with advanced technology. Computers are available in many formats for use in industries, businesses, hospitals, schools, universities, transport networks and individual homes. Small or large, a computer network exists to provide computer users with the means of communicating and transferring information electronically. The use of Internet has revolutionized access to information for the business world, libraries, education and individuals. A few of the most popular include E-mail (electronic mail), World Wide Web, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), Usenet, and Telnet. The Internet and its technology continues to have a profound effect in promoting the sharing of information especially in academic world, making possible rapid transactions among businesses, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organizations. Learning resource centres now often contain learning materials published on CD-ROM, soft copy document which call be carried about even in our mobile phones and most colleges are connected to the Internet. These technologies have the potential to develop “virtual campuses” and thus increase student access and participation. Information technology provides access to mainstream materials and enables students to express their thoughts in words, designs and activities despite their disabilities. It is in line with the above that the researcher decide to investigate the contribution of the global system of mobile communication in the development of education among student of Taraba state.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the contribution of GSM to the development of education among student of Taraba state. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objective;
- To ascertain the contribution of GSM to the development of education in Taraba state
- To investigate the role of ICT in information dissemination among Taraba state student
- To examine the relationship between GSM usage and the development of the education sector
- To evaluate the impact of ICT on students efficiency
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion if the study the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: GSM service and usage does not contribute to the development of education in Taraba state
H1: GSM service and usage does contribute to the development of education in Taraba state
H02: ICT does not play any significant role in information dissemination among Taraba state student.
H2: ICT does play a significant role in information dissemination among Taraba state student.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of institutions of learning in Taraba state in integrating the system of education to catch up with the trend of mobile learning and digitalization of the process of documentation. The study will also be useful to student in Taraba state as the study seek to explore the benefits of GSM to the educational sector, the study will also be useful to the researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point for further study. Finally the study will contribute to the pool of existing knowledge in the subject matter and also add to the pool of existing literature.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers contributions of GSM to the development of education among student of Taraba state. In the cause of the study, there were some constraint which limited the scope of the study;
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: financial constraints tends to impede the speed of the research student to buy materials and visit other areas of the federal government sector to get information and other materials concerning the research topic but the researcher was able to get meaningful information concerning the research topic.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: this researcher still being a student must be involved in one or two departmental activities like seminar presentation, submission of assignment, attendance to lectures etc but the researcher was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work.
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Global system of mobile communication (GSM) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
CONTRIBUTION OF GSM TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION AMONG STUDENTS OF TARABA STATE>
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