COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF PUNISHMENT AND REWARD ON LEARNING

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Abstract

This study was designed to examine the effect of reward and punishment on academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Benin City. This study was motivated to find out whether the parents and teachers support the use of reward and punishment in secondary school system. The investigation was therefore guided by the following:

  1. Whether reward and punishment would have effect on educational system in Benin City.
  2. Whether reward and punishment are instrument of discipline to follow the questionnaire were administered based on the three criteria above. The result were analyzed, the following emerged as a research findings.
  3. Reward and punishment plays a big and important role in teaching and learning process and should be practiced in schools.
  4. Parents and teachers support the use of reward and punishment in schools system.

iii.    Reward and punishment is weapon of descriptive and that they have important role to perform in school administration and academic performance of the learner or students.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study

1.2   Statement of problem

1.3   Objective of the study

1.4   Research questions

1.5   Hypothesis (if any)

1.6   Significance of the study

1.7   Scope of the study

1.8   Assumption of the study(if any)

1.9   Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Conceptual review

2.2   Theoretical framework

2.3   Current Literature review

2.4   Summary of Literature review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Design of the study

3.2    Area of the study

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample size and sampling technique

3.5    Instrument for data collection

3.6    Validity of the  Instrument

3.7    Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument

3.8            Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS

4.1   Tabulation of Responses

4.2   Testing of hypothesis

4.3   Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1   Summary of findings

5.2    Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

References

Appendix

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Punishment and reward are regarded as essential means through which a teacher can maintain class discipline in primary schools. Many educationist and psychologist have expressed different views over the effective use of punishment and rewards in primary schools. During the course of this study, the writer will bring together the contrasting views and feelings of others so that the reader can be given sufficient ground work o which to base his conclusion after reading the research works. Punishment and reward are most debated issues in the school administration today, especially when they are related to learning process. It is equally an area of interest, which closely involves many parents and teachers who feels the need for education authority to define its limitations so as not to over step their limits. A point and acceptable solution must be sought on this intriguing issue of punishment and reward because the outcome will give a practical advice and guidance to those who are just beginning the teaching profession or to parent who show such concern over their children success in life. This work does not claim to solve all the problems concerned with punishment and reward in learning process in the school system rather to height some possible remedies, which will be of abundant educational values to both teachers and parents and the public in general.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This work is on the study of the effects of reward and punishment on academic performance of pupils in some selected primary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Many educationist and psychologist have written many books covering this topic. Farrant (2004) emphasized that if reward and punishment is used wrongly, it can cause the pupils to misbehave thereby creating a class of ‚Äúundisciplined‚ÄĚ children. Misbehaviour such as lateness, stealing, destruction of school or home property, disobedience, throwing of stones etc all acts that constitute rebellion and this can have negative effects on learning. The writers attempts the study therefore is to examine the views of some of these writers in addition to their research findings and personal experience so as to be able to know the following main problems.

–¬†¬†¬†To determine if it is true that pupils in primary schools can learn effectively with the use of rewards.

–¬†¬†¬†¬†Whether it is possible to combine the use of reward and punishment so that much can be achieved in terms of educational objectives

–¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Whether punishment has effect on the learning process of the pupils in primary schools.

–¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† To find out whether effective learning can always take place in absence of any form of punishment

–¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Whether there is other methods of learning reward and punishment will not be employed.

 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the effect of punishment and reward on learning
  2. To ascertain the relationship between learning punishment and learning reward
  3. To ascertain the effect of punishment and academic performance

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:  there is no effect of punishment and reward on learning.

H1: there is effect of punishment and reward on learning.

H02:  there is no relationship between learning punishment and learning reward

H2:  there is relationship between learning punishment and learning reward

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help to lay more emphasis on the effective use of reward and punishment by policy makers. Those who plan the curriculum in the primary schools will be well equipped with the effects of reward and punishment in our primary schools. it will also be of great benefit to the teachers, parents and to the Edo State ministry of education because it will provide them useful information about the roles of reward and punishment as a means of enhancing learning in our society at large.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers comparative study of effect of punishment and reward on learning. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Reward: Is a satisfaction of needs for a whole series of responses/an act of appreciation a job well done.

Punishment: The withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus as a consequence of behaviour. An act of correcting a wrong ‚Äúact‚ÄĚ or character exhibited.

LEARNING: Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines, and there is also evidence for some kind of learning in some plants.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study



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