TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Industrial accident problem
- Objective of research work
- Definition of terms
2.0 Literature review
- Conceptual review
- Empirical review
- Theoretical Review
- Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
- Population of the study
- Sampling and sampling distribution
- Validation of research instrument
- Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
Flooding is persistent in Lagos Metropolis. The objective of this study is to ascertain the causes, magnitude, and effects; and to indicate directions for policy makers and urban dwellers. Topographical maps were used for data collection on the physical environment. Some physical measurements were made of the drainage channels and floods. 200 inhabitants of the metropolis were randomly selected and made to respond to some questions. In addition, authorities in professionally related fields including policy makers were made to make contributions. Intermittent supplies and torrential rainfall in its seasons are usually beyond the capacities of the channels. These are compounded by inadequate planning of the physical environment, wastes dumped in drainage channels and erosion passages, and deliberate or inadvertent physical structures that block free flow of water along the drains.
- Background of the study
The Flooding is persistent in Lagos Metropolis. The objective of this paper is to ascertain the causes, magnitude, and effects; and to indicate directions for policy makers and urban dwellers. Topographical maps were used for data collection on the physical environment. Some physical measurements were made of the drainage channels and floods. 2,000 inhabitants of the metropolis were randomly selected and Made to respond to some questions. In addition, authorities in professionally related fields including policy makers were made to make contributions. Intermittent supplies and torrential rainfall in its seasons are usually beyond the capacities of the channels. These are compounded by inadequate planning of the physical environment, wastes dumped in drainage channels and erosion passages, and deliberate or inadvertent physical structures that block free flow of water along the drains. Floods are as wide as 500m and above on each side of the channels and as high as 2.00m at some times and localities. There are some advantages associated with it. Living habits of the inhabitants have to change. Physical planning efforts have to be drastic, radical and deterministic towards sustainable drainage and erosion
channels. There must be massive investment in dredging and re-dredging of the existing drainage network and channelization of the new suburbs. Floodable zones should be re-planned; and flood plains can be rehabilitated as parks and recreation centers.
Environmental disasters have become common phenomenon in the world, (Oyegbile, 2008). According to him, from China to Mexico, Indonesia, United States of America, United Kingdom and Nigeria, there is no doubt that the world is under serious threat from the environment. But analysts have argued that the environment was only responding to the abuses heaped on it by man’s activities (Christopherson, 1997 p.423). This has created a great burden for world leaders which is why the issue of environment ran neck and neck with matters of economy and poverty at the last meeting of the eight worlds most developed economies otherwise known as the G8 submit in Japan. The concern is that the world may be getting close to extinction through natural disasters unless immediate actions are taken; and the signs are just too apparent to be ignored (Christopherson, 1997 and Oyegbile, 2008). Specifically, in May 2008, floods triggered by torrential rains killed dozens of people across China, while thousands of others were victims of landslides caused by the downpours. China is not alone. In the United States of America, the Mississippi River caused lots of damages put at several millions of dollars when it over flew its banks, flooding some cities, towns, farmlands and major industrial installations over a distance of about 250km and ravaging Iowa before it heaped downstream. While the county authorities battled with the attendant social problems, the national weather service also had to warn that the flood was a potential threat to additional 10 cities along the Mississippi in Illinois and Missouri. Amtrak, the national passenger train had to halt its services on the California-Zephyr route between Chicago and Denver, its Empire Builder line between Chicago and St Paul, Minnesota, and its south-west chief route between Chicago and Kansas City because of the flood. Apart from this, world records of flood has it that recently, severe floods were experienced in Norway, China, Bangladesh, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Florida, that is, apart from the Mississippi-Missouri River Systems of 1993, and that of 1995, (Christopherson, 1997). In India, over 14 million Indians were victims to the flood of August 2007 in Sathya Sai Baba, a major human settlement, of that region, (http://www.awakenedwomen.com/flood.htm). The nation’s government could not organize any emergency relief immediately. Rather, it spent over $1.6 billion on Hawk Jets. One church agency helped in 20 villages but there were 300 of such villages in one district of Chattisgarh alone, and international aid agencies were absent. Local Government help was limited to 200-500 rupees, and even that went only to a few homeless families, and a one-of ration of 7-10 pounds of rice. As in the recent flood in Argentina, corruptions by officials were widespread. The households headed by women were discriminated against and so also Dalit and Tribal families were refused of the meager compensations. Hunger and diseases stalked the India children and the poor in the region. In Nigeria, recently (also in the month of August 2008), the residents of Makurdi were thrown out of their residences and their farmlands left impoverished after two days of heavy down pour of rainfall. It was described as very disastrous, (Taiwo, 2008). He also reported in Thisday (August 18) that at least five hundred people were rendered homeless and properties worth several millions of Naira were destroyed when the flood, occasioned by torrential rainfall ravaged Babura, a town in Jigawa State in a period of two days. But even then, apart from the recent occurrences and experiences of flood, there is this long time occurrence of flood through creationists model. They are often criticized for being too vague to have any predictive value, (Gould 1980). A literal interpretation of the flood story in the book of Genesis in the Bible however, does supply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what can be observed and the implications of such an interpretation can be investigated (Gould, 1980 and Whitecomb and Morris, 1961). According to them, several questions remained unanswered: All models and theories about the flood said a lot of things about flood, its destructive power, suddenness, occasion and so on though there are several questions that remain unanswered: How could that large number of animals travel such long distances, and even for such large diverse carnivores to come to live near their preys and Noah; and how was the Ark loaded (Genesis 7:4-10); how were the animals catered for throughout the period the flood lasted. That Ark specified in the Bible would not have been large enough to carry a cargo of animals and food sufficient to repopulate the earth especially if animals that are now extinct were to be aboard, (Isaak 1998). He asserts that if the flood model were not riddled by all its problems, why should one accept it? According to him and Woodmorappe (1996), Whitecomb et al (1996), Brown (1997) and Gould (1980), what it does attempt to explain is already explained far more accurately, consistently and thoroughly by conventional Geology and Biology and the flood model leaves many other things unexplained, and unexplainable. Isaak (1998) in particular quarried, ’if God is omnipotent, why not kill what He wanted to kill directly? Why resort to a roundabout method that requires innumerable additional miracles? The whole idea was to rid the wicked people from the world. Did it work?’ A literal interpretation of this flood story in the Book of Genesis in the Bible however, does supply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what can be observed, and the implications of such an interpretation can be investigated (Gould 1980 and Whitecomb et al 1961). However, from the whole old worldwide story from the book of Genesis and the recent experiences and records, it is clearly known that a flood is a high water level that overflows the natural (and or artificial) levees along any portion of a stream. Both floods and flood plains they might occupy are rated statistically for the expected time intervals between floods. Thus we may have ‘5-year flood,’ ’10-year flood,’ ’50-year flood’ etc, (Christopherson 1997 pp.446). Floods, usually ’very large body of water covering the land that were usually dry and beyond its banks’ – destroys farm lands, property, industrial installations, roads, railways, residences and it carries people away. In other words, it is usually abrupt, accidental, destructive and harmful. It may be very devastating to any community and or nation that it might affect economically and socially. Though, sometimes, it is not without some advantages. There have been preponderance occurrences of flood in the Lagos Metropolis in recent times. There have also been journalistic and non-quantitative reports of flood for several parts of Nigeria including Lagos. But they are superficial and lack directions for professionals and policy makers. Above all, there is none, of recent, to describe the magnitude and criticality of the phenomena in the entire Lagos Metropolis with the attendant problems. The works of Adeaga (2008) and Oyebande (1983, 1990 and 2005) are either disjointed or sectional. They are not laconically on flood in the metropolis. Adeaga (2008) in particular, in his recent work on Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Management in Part of Lagos N.E is only on mapping of the hazards caused by flood in the North Eastern part of the metropolis which is also an outskirt. The entire Metropolis and the Central Business District in particular require attention (Akosile 2008, Adeaga 2008 and Aderogba and Afelumo In Print). This work therefore aims at examining the drainage system of the whole metropolis, the flooding pattern, frequencies, causes, significances and absolute means of preventing disasters and chaos. The work is limited to the flood and its characteristics within the metropolis. Aspects of the coastal erosion and flood were avoided for another work on coastal erosion. An elaborate quantitative analysis of the drainage basin is avoided.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Flood events and impacts in recent times have arguably been unprecedented and affected the lives of hundreds of millions of people across the world. These impacts have been shared by both developing and developed countries (DCs) with rapid urban expansion taking place on many flood prone areas. Concerns for flooding and the associated human impacts are clearly of global significance, especially when allied with the fears of climatic change and associated changes in rainfall events and sea level rise. The rapidly growing urban environments in many areas correspond with a lack of urban planning strategies, the deterioration and lack of capacity of urban drainage infrastructure and an increased rate of development on floodplains (Gill, 25 2004; CII 2001). It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the challenges of poor drainage systems and floods control in Lagos metropolis.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to investigate challenges of poor drainage system and flood control in Lagos metropolis; but to aid the completion of the study the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective:
- To ascertain the challenges of poor drainage systems in flood control in Lagos
- To investigate if there is any relationship between drainage system and flood control in Lagos state
- To investigate the role of government in combating flooding in Lagos metropolis
- To evaluate the impact of flooding on the economic growth of Lagos metropolis
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no challenges in addressing poor drainage system to aid flood control in Lagos metropolis
H1: there are challenges in addressing poor drainage system to aid flood control in Lagos metropolis
H02: there is no significant relationship between drainage system and flood control in Lagos metropolis
H2: there is a significant relationship between drainage system and flood control in Lagos metropolis
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to the federal ministry of environment, as the study seek to stress on the merit of adequate maintenance culture, the study will also be of importance to the ministry of environment as the study seek to explore the benefit of flood control in the state,
Finally the study will be of importance to researcher who intends to embark on a similar as the study will serve as a reference point for further study
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the challenges of poor drainage system and flood control in Lagos metropolis, in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study:
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface’s water and sub-surface water from an area
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Flood relief methods are used to reduce the effects of floodwaters or high water levels.
1.8 Organization of the study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
CHALLENGES OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND FLOODS CONTROL IN LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA>
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