This research was designed to investigate the causes of cultism and its effect on academic performance of secondary school students. The investigation was carried out based on some research questions formulated by the researcher to elicit the necessary information from the despondence. The respondents were required to give other opinion about the appropriate measures put in place to check and curtail cult activities in secondary schools in the local government area and possibly, the wide spread of cultism. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were used to gather information from respondents, which cut across secondary students. The data collected was tabulated and analyzed appropriately. The statistical procedure used in this research work to analyze the data collected was the simple percentage.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
According to watch tower magazine of June 1st 1977” much as been written in news papers, magazines and books about the lurid deeds of cult groups. The detail of the wide spread of violent activities called cult group had been cured on national television and radio as well It has become a major problem for the police officers in both small and bigger cities such as America Canada and in Nigeria e.t.c basically in this country (Nigeria) cult activities had led to wanton destruction of lives and properties and also educational activities in our secondary schools of learning. For example, in Uselu secondary schools on the 15th of February 2007. a clash between the black axe and the Eiye cult groups left many students injured. On another occasion, in the same school (Uselu) on 29th June 2008 a boy name Osas was attacked and spent several months at the hospital. In Adolor College, on play 16th 2008, innocent students were attacked by a cult group beating and taking their valuables. Recently in Uselu secondary school, on 16thJune 2009, two girls (students of Uselu Secondary school) were rapped as they were about been initiated into a cult group. Of all the factors militating against smooth academic calendar, secret cult activities appear to be the most intractable today. Ritualistic tendencies, display of acts of terrorism, and the wanton destruction of life and property perpetrated by members of secret cults have become grave social concern in and outside the school system. The situation is rapidly assuming alarming and wilder proportion.
The reckless use of offensive weapons including arms and ammunition by cult members or groups portends a grave danger for the growth of education in our country. Ojo, (1995) paints a gloomier picture of the situation when he writes that “students keep dying, getting maimed and disfigured; they keep being sexually harassed by occult confraternities. Yet the school authorities are doing nothing to confront the evil”. (p.47)
Lar (2005) in the same vain, points that the activities of cult members have led to so much loss of life and property especially in our institutions of learning; Students kill and injure themselves during intra and inter cult clashes on revenge missions valuables like cars and houses are burnt down electronics, provisions in shops among others are looted.
Cult activities have continued to thrive in Nigeria due to enormous impression of securing invincibility of cult members. A major factor working in favour of cult groups is mass ignorance on the part of students especially the new students who are hoodwinked and deceived to join one secret cult or the other. Secret cult societies could be traced down to the Egyptians. According ancient Egyptian anthropology, cultism is the state or a phenomenon where persons are bound together with a common belief or cause usually through some ritual.
The word ‘cult’ means a system of religious worship especially one that is expressed in rituals. From this definition cults now popularly known as confraternities, have assumed monstrous features in our institutions of learning. To this end our various institutions, which were hitherto models for intellectual quest and social upliftment have become citadels of violence and terrorism. The pertinent question that one may ask is; are the phenomenons of cultism and cult activities just entering our institutions of leaning? The answer is simply no; this is because international figures have been known to be members of the pirates’ confraternity in their college days. This is further confirmed when there were violent clashes between the Eiye confraternity and Buccaueers at the University of Ibadan in (1989) some notable professors and doctors at the institution were found to be patrons and bankers of these cults.
The proliferation of cult group such as Vikings, the black axe, the morphine, the buccaneers, the pirates, the black arrow to mention but a few have become familiar features in our secondary schools today even in Mission owned Secondary schools. According Olaoye, (1999) in 1994, nine students of Baptist High School, Abeokuta were caught performing initiation rite for members of their cult in the midnight. A similar incident was reported in Abia state, where the principal of Methodist College Uzoakoli caught thirteen students with guns in protestation of the expulsion of two students belonging to their cult over the allegation of raping female students in the school. Reports from various institutions as posited by Babatunde (2010) have shown that most secondary schools in Nigeria have become arenas for cult activities.
All the activities and philosophy of secret cults manifest perpetration of acts of violence. Their operations are conducted in secrecy and are carried out during nocturnal initiations and ceremonies. Drug use, extortion, rape, maiming, stealing, arson, examination malpractices and murder are some of the aftermaths of their secret activities. The philosophy of secret cults according to Osagie, (2004) is demonstrated by their slogans and names, for instance the pirates say: “Blood for blood” “measure for measure” “No friend no foe”.
Black Axe: “The axe never falls without coming up with blood stain: In our domain “Mistake hath no place and we don’t believe in coincidence”. cobrab: say “The bleeder must be bled in full measure”.
The philosophy and composition of secret cults suggests organized criminality. It is worth pondering a number of important questions. What types of decent and well integrated students and academic environment would our secondary schools have if the philosophy of these secret cults was positive? Can we still have a fully relevant education with the daily increase in cult activities? What legacies is the present generation of our institutions of learning leaving for future generations? Has cultism contributed anything positive to its members, their respective families, school environment and society at large? These questions require thoughtful answers from cult members, sponsors and sympathizers; and hence the statement of the problem of this research.
Therefore, these horrible cult activities have contributed in no small measure to the supervision of many students from school and also to the incessant closure of schools. In a nut shell, cultism has become a matter of concern not only to parents and teachers but also to government in general. James V.I. Ishekhure (2005). It is not gain saying that cultism is satanic all over the world youths are the easy prey to these satanic groups. The future of our nations (Nigeria) lies in the hands of today youth. If cultism is playing our citadels of learning (where the mind and character of youths are being shaped for good) then the very foundation of our national development is shaking. This student therefore is to examine the causes and effects of cultism on the academic performance on secondary school students
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been seen that many people across the strata of the society have. That the standard and academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria is falling very fast, it is against this background that geared towards investigating the problem of cultism in our secondary schools and its effect on student’s academic performance are as follows:
- It causes tension to other students not involved in such an act
- It causes insecurity.
When we say that the effect of cult activities, it means basically that, it causes their feelings to tense or tightly stretched. Also when we say that it causes insecurity incessantly It means basically that, it causes their feelings to tense or tightly stretched also when we say that it causes insecurity incessantly. It means that other students are unsaved continually without stopping.
- Does cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school?
- Does cultism led to violence and loss to lives and properties to the extend that the standard of education in Nigeria has been affected negatively?
- Does cultism led to tension and insecurity to students and teachers who are not cultist?
- Does peer group influence students to join cult group?
To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: cultism does not lead to tension and insecurity to students and teachers who are not cultist
H1: cultism does lead to tension and insecurity to students and teachers who are not cultist
H0: cultism does not lead to violence and loss to lives and properties to the extent that the standard of education in Nigeria has been affected negatively
H2: cultism does lead to violence and loss to lives and properties to the extent that the standard of education in Nigeria has been affected negatively
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine the causes and effects of cult activities on the academic performance of secondary school students, the ultimate aim is to create a conducive atmosphere for learning in secondary schools in order to give our young ones sound education
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that, the findings of this study will be great important to both educators and the students in general. The study will be of benefit to the educational administrators, policy makers and students un particular to identify the causes and effect, of cult activities on educational standard of secondary schools in the country. With that motivating factor that leads the youth to part take or join cult groups unidentified, the school administrators would be in a better position to handle problems related to cultism. The study can also lead to other researchable variables with a view to find better solution to cultism in our schools i.e. primary secondary and our higher institutions. If the findings and recommendations are utilized as supposed, it will create mush awareness among the parent’s educators and government functionaries to ameliorate problems of cultism in the country
BASIC ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
During the cause of through research to the causes and effects of cult activities (cultism) on the academic performance of secondary school students, the following assumptions were made
- that people tends to enter into cultism with that primary notion of fighting for their rights
- that people enter into cultism in order to be more relevant of influential
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers causes and effect of cultism on academic performance of secondary school students, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors that limited the scope of the study;
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
DEFINITION OF TERMS
From the oxford advance learner’s dictionary the following terms were briefly defined as it was stated in the passages
Plaging: it means an action done deliberately for no good reason
Exasperation: it means getting extremely annoyed or irritated of solution that one can do nothing to improve
Incessant closure: it means to process of closing or an act of continuing without stopping
Curb the Menace: it means to restrain word of threatening or action
Canker worm: it means contemptible evil or dangerous influence that spreads and affects the human behaviors
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
CAUSES AND EFFECT OF CULTISM ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS>
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