Broadcast media like the television, internet, social media and Television has evolved into a potent force to be reckoned with in the transmission of social values and norms in a civilized society. Moreover, there are TV stations that have emerged with specialized programming in entertainment, called entertainment television. The study, sought to find out the frequency of teenagers’ exposure to entertainment TV; the kinds of entertainment programs they watch; what they pay attention to in the programs they watch; and how the entertainment programs shape their world view concerning social behavior in their environment. The results show that teenagers frequently watched entertainment TV as represented a considerable proportion of them who indicated so
Background of the study
The broadcast media, most especially television have gradually become a part of our daily lives, and sources of information, education and entertainment have been described as the primary functions of the media.The mass media especially the visual media (television, films, and now the new media) are widely believed to be uniquely effective because of their visual advantage which enables the retention of attention among audiences, as well as „pre-occupying‟ especially for the youth and adolescents, even among some adults. Mass media newspapers, magazines, comic books, radio, video games, movies, and especially television present a very different form of socialization than any other, because they offer no opportunity for interaction. Television has an influence on children from a very young age and affects their cognitive and social development (Elkind, 2007;Wright et al., 2001).
Television is the medium with the greatest socialization effect, surpassing all the other media by far in its influence on the youth. The very fact that television is not an interactive agent is greatly significant to the development of the youth. While watching, children and adult have the feeling that they’re interacting, but they’re not. That’s one of the disadvantages of television as a socializer it satisfies social needs to some extent, but doesn’t’give the social skills (or the real-life practice in those skills) that allow them to function effectively with people. Since the average child watches 3 to 4 hours of television a day, the time left for playing with others and learning social skills is drastically reduced. Even adult and adolescent average about an hour and a half of television viewing a day between the time they are adolescent and early adulthood (Wright et al., 2001).
Adolescent and early adulthood is the time that children become aware of television and movie characters. Throughout history, familiar characters have appealed to adolescent and early adulthood of a particular age bracket. The expansion of youth media programs in recent years through sources such as cable TV and video games has greatly increased the number and variety of such characters and their related toys. The electronic media are designed to expand knowledge of society and the larger world, develop creativity, encourage problem solving, roleplaying, socialization, and improve literacy and vocabulary. The entire study of mass communication was based on the assumption that the media have significant effects, yet there was little agreement on the nature and extent of these assumed effects, McQuail (2007). This uncertainty was more surprising since everyday experience provides countless examples of influence. For example, we dress for the weather as forecast, buy something because of an advert, go to a film mentioned in a newspaper, react to media news, films, music etc. There are many cases of negative media publicity for instance food contamination leading to significant changes in food consumption behaviour, acts of violence or suicide appear to be copied or stimulated by media portrayals. McQuail further asserts that our minds are full of media derived information and impressions as we live in a world saturated by media sounds and images. Few people cannot think of some personal instance of gaining significant information or of forming an opinion because of the media. In today’s society, electronic media are thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life with television, movies, video, music, video games central to both work and play. Recent studies indicate that young adult in Nigeria and in Isoko North of delta state which is the limited area of this work use a wide variety of screen media. It is obvious that television if adequately used and monitored can be a great tool of education and positive character, but the being the case, electronic and broadcast media can contribute to aggressive behaviour, anxiety and obesity in children. The electronic media plays important role in socialization through learning which it does by providing important sources of information. It also plays an important role in the transmission of attitudes, perception and beliefs. A British psychologist, as cited in Folarin (2005), divides man’s activities into work and play. The former involving reality and production, while the latter deals with entertainment, relaxation or self satisfaction. He further says that people use mass communication more as play than as work, more for pleasure and entertainment than for information and serious work. Folarin (ibid) corroborates this view by saying that one constant criticism of television in Nigeria is its focus on entertainment rather than on development purposes.
There is no doubt that the impact of the media on young people’s lives is broadly considered within what is referred to as “media effects” debate which to a great extent focuses on the potentially negative impact of the media on young people’s lives: video violence, gambling, educational performance, mass consumerism, etc (Miles, 2000). Steele & Brown (1995) identifies three main reasons why media influence should be given a closer look; Young people spend more time with the mass media than they do in school or with their parents. The media are full of portrayals that glamorize risky adult behavior such as excessive drinking and sexual promiscuity. Parents and other socialization agents have arguably shirked their responsibilities when it comes to directing youth away from risky forms of behavior; thereby allowing the media a more fundamental influence.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is none denying the fact that the television media have taken a center stage in our daily activities especially in the 21st Century with the emergence and consolidation of different television stations and service providers. It has been observed in cities that satellite and cable television stations have a greater amount of audience than the local television stations. However, this study wants to examine the role broadcast media plays in shaping social behaviour among teenagers as an agent of socialization of youth in Isoko North local government of Delta state. It is evident through previous researches that with ample television stations at their finger tips these young people spend more time watching television. A conservative estimate has being given of an average American teenager who spends 2.5 hours per day watching television. The young people spend an average of 16-18 hours watching television per week, starting from the age 2 and over half of all 15-16 year olds have seen the majority of the most popular recent R-rated movies (Wakefield, et al, 2003).
Furthermore, from previous researches carried out on the effects of television on teenagers, it has been discovered that most of the programmes teenagers watch are entertainment-related, for instance movies, musical videos, soap operas, etc. The influence of these programmes on teenagers may not be immediate or outrightly effective due to some other variables like family, social group, peer group, etc. It is on this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the the role of broadcast media and youth socialization in Isoko North.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the impact of broadcast media and it impact as a socialization agent of the youth. But to aid the completion of the study the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective:
To ascertain the impact of broadcast media in youth socialization
To investigate the role of television media in youth education and socialization
To see if the media serves as agent of socialization.
To investigate the relationship between electronic media and youth socialization in Isoko
To investigate the role of television media in curbing deviant behavior among Isoko youth
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been observed in recent times that the broadcast media in Nigeria is blossoming especially in its dominance in the contents of the programming of most television stations in Nigeria, especially the major cities (Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt Delta, etc). Therefore, this study seeks to draw the attention of media practitioners and owners (especially television) to the vital role television plays as an agent of socialization. Having this fact in mind, television media practioners and owners will be mindful of the kind of programmes they air, most especially at prime time, knowing fully the vulnerable and gullible nature of teenagers and young adult.
A research into how television shapes the social behaviour of youth whether positively or negatively appears novel, especially in television media studies. This is a contemporary issue which scholars in the field of media studies have paid little or no attention to. Therefore, part of the uniqueness of this study is that it will be of immense significance to researchers in the academia in the 21st Century. It does not only aim at contributing to knowledege but also providing a foundational basis for further studies into the socialization role of entertainment television.
Nonetheless, parents of young adult and also teenagers who are at the heart of this study will understand fully the positive and negative roles television plays in contributing to shaping their social behaviour in their immediate enviroment. It will also avail counsellors viable information on where and how teenagers draw inferences for their social behaviours. This is because teenagers might not only behave in a certain manner because of mere peer influence, but also from what they watch on television, especially from people or celebrities they see as role models. It is also believed that the findings of this study will be an added resource to available literature and will be used to promote informed decision-making and policies by the regulating bodies of the broadcast and entertainment industry.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role of broadcast media and socialization of youth in Isoko north local government of Delta state. In this study emphasis was placed on television media because broadcast media is very vast.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the cause of the study there are some factors which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
To aid the completion of the study, the following research question were formulated by the researcher
What is the role of television media in shaping the social behavior of Isoko youth?
Is there any relationship between electronic media and youth socialization in Isoko north?
Is there any impact of broadcast media in character formation of the youth in Isoko north?
Does the television media plays any role in curbing deviant behavior among Isoko youth?
1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: broadcast media does not have any influence on the attitude of Isoko youth on socialization
H1: broadcast media have a significant influence on the attitude of Isoko youth on socialization
H02: there is no significant relationship between television programs and youth socialization in Isoko north
H2: there is a significant relationship between television programs and youth socialization in Isoko north
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Broadcast media is the most expedient means to transmit information immediately to the widest possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges television as the primary source of news. Most people now get their daily news through broadcast, rather than printed, media.
In sociology, socialization istheprocess of ((internalizing the ((norms and ideologies of society.Socialization Encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus “the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained”. Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology. Humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive. Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children
Youth is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood (((maturity). It is also defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, etc., characteristic of one who is young”. Its definitions of a specific age range varies, as youth is not defined chronologically as a stage that can be tied to specific age ranges; nor can its end point be linked to specific activities, such as taking unpaid work or having sexual relations without consent
1.9 AREA OF THE STUDY
Isoko North is one of two Local Government Areas (LGA) in the Isoko region of Delta State, southern Nigeria – the other being Isoko South. The population of Isoko North was approximately 112,000 as of 2003. Its headquarters are in the town of Ozoro which has 14,000 seater capacity Olympic size stadium at the Delta State Polytechnic Ozoro. There are 13 Electoral Wards in the Local Government Area. Major towns in Isoko North are Ozoro, Owhelogbo, Otor Owhe, Oghara-Iyede and Emevor. The people are mostly Christian and traditional worshippers. Isoko North contains oil producing regions, and is the location of some of the recent conflict in the Niger Delta.
AcademicBohn, H. U. (1991). Mass Media VI: An Introduction to Modern Communication. New York: Longman.
Anaeto, S. G., Onabanjo, S. O., & Osifeso, B. J. (2008). Models and theories of communication. Maryland: African Renaissance Books Incorporated.
Auderheide, P. (1986). The look of the sound. In Gitlin, T. (ed.), Watching television. New York: Panthon.n
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall.
Baran, J. S. & Davis, K. D. (2003). Mass communication theory: foundations, ferment, and future. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Baran, J. S. (2009). Introduction to mass communication: media literacy and culture. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Brooks, K. (2003). Nothing sells like teen spirit: the commodification of youth culture. In
Comstock, G. (1991). Television and the American child. San Diego:
Comstock, G. and Paik, H. (1991). Television and the American Child. New York: Academic Press.
Dominick, J. R. (2002). The Dynamics of Mass Communication Media in the Digital Age (7th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Elkin, F. and Handel, G. (1989) The Child and Society: The Process of Socialization (5th ed). New York: Random House.
Eshleman, J. (2000). The Family (9th ed). USA. Pearson Education Company.
Folarin, B. (2002). Theories of Mass Communication. Abeokuta: Link Publication.
Egbunike, N. (2008). NBC’s perturbing silence on Big Brother Nigeria III. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from http://feathersproject.wordpress.com/2008/07/10/nbc-perturbing-silence-on-big-brother-nigeria-iii/
Folarin, B. (2005). Theories of mass communication: an introductory text (3rd ed.). Ibadan: Bakinfol Publications.
Hayes, N. (1998). Foundations of Psychology. UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd
Mallan, K. & Pearce, S. (ed.), Youth cultures. London: Praeger Publishers.
McQuail, D. (2005). Mass Communication Theory. Britain: Alden Press
DELIVERY WITHIN 48 HOURS
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
BROADCAST MEDIA AND SOCIALIZATION OF YOUTHS IN ISOKO NORTH, DELTA STATE>
A1Project Hub Support Team Are Always (24/7) Online To Help You With Your Project
Chat Us on WhatsApp » 09063590000
DO YOU NEED CLARIFICATION? CALL OUR HELP DESK:
09063590000 (Country Code: +234)
YOU CAN REACH OUR SUPPORT TEAM VIA MAIL: [email protected]
09063590000 (Country Code: +234)