1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study seeks to evaluate the availability of qualified teachers for effective teaching and learning of English language in our junior secondary schools using schools in Enugu zone in Enugu state as our focal point. Pragmatist theory which is a philosophical example of innovation based on policy orientation and abstract world view, pure ideas as the Yardstick (tool) for assessment, teaching and learning of English language was adopted as our theoretical framework. Our method of data collection is primary sources which helps us to organize the information in quantitative form. Two hypotheses tested are that we lack qualified teachers in English language in Enugu zone and that performance of students in English language is poor. The study recommends that the ministry of education will sit up and take the bull by the horn in nipping it in the bud the endemic problem. Non-dedicated and incompetent teachers should be shown the way out while provisions will be made for the reward of teachers and students to enhance greater performance output and productivity.
- Background of the study
Contemporary education is an indispensable asset and factor in the solution of the modern equations whether in terms of individual self-actualization, socio-economic needs, natural development and consolidation or modification of the attitudes and behavior of our children. But education like other important human enterprise and human condition stems from the fact that it provides comprehensive interpretation of the fundamental issues and the events that are pertinent to them. In Nigeria, education is seen as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. As such, education is expected to be of high quality in order to produce sound and quality products that can contribute to the growth of the national economy. The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ academic achievement in school is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe & Adu, 2013). Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications in various areas of endeavour such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and Master of Art (M.A.) and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education. They hold degrees like, B.Ed, B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed degrees and so on. Onyekuru and Ibegbunam (2013) found that teaching effectiveness of teachers from secondary schools was below average. However, Akinsolu (2010) had a contrary result when he found out that teachers’ qualifications, experience and teacher–student ratio were significantly related to students’ academic performance. Good and qualified teachers are essential for efficient functioning of educational systems and for enhancing the quality of learning. Research supports this notion that a good teacher and actions to be taken on his part in the classroom play a vital role in provoking effective and efficient learning on the part of the students (Markley, 2004). Teachers also have a fundamental role in their learners’ academic achievement and their quality can highly influence student outcomes (Campbell, Kyriakides, Muijsc & Robinsona, 2004; Lasley II, Siedentop & Yinger, 2006; Rockoff, 2004). English language teachers are by no means an exception and their key role in effective language learning cannot be overlooked. Special attention must be paid to this link between teachers and learners in countries like Iran where language learning happens mainly in formal classroom settings (Kariminia & Salehizadeh, 2007), and teachers, as the main source of language input to students, affect their learning directly. Although effective teachers in general may share some characteristics, there are certain qualities that differ among them depending on the subject matter they teach. Some researchers believe that it is the nature of the subject matter that makes language teachers different from teachers of other fields (Hammadou & Bernhar, 1987). Some others even go beyond this and claim that diverse subject matters are not the only distinction between teachers of various subjects (Borg, 2006). Rather a teacher’s beliefs, perceptions and assumptions about teaching and teacher efficacy affect the way he/she understands and organizes instruction (Chacón, 2005). It is also important to study the perceptions of learners about learning and teaching. Their beliefs about language learning seem to have obvious relevance to understanding their expectations of the course, their commitment to the class as well as providing them with the opportunity to be successful and satisfied with their language learning program (Horwitz, 1988). Moreover, investigation of the student beliefs about different behaviors in the language classroom is useful in informing teachers about different types of learners that need to be catered for (Cotterall, 1999).
These philosophies are built around the teacher, environment and the students who are the cardinal pillars or reasons behind its success. In the classroom the teacher performs the very important functions of instructions and evaluation of the pupils, control of the class, creation of congenial atmosphere for learning and motivating the children to learn.
Ukeje (1984) but outside the classroom the role changes and with the importance attached to each of the child’s functions in the class room. He now performs consciously or unconsciously the important function of socializing the school and the community. Madukwe (2008); has it that the teacher is expected to participate actively in the extra curricular activities of a varied and different set of situation. Onimode (2008) has it that even though , the teacher may enjoy the goodwill of the pupils/students, his relationship with the students where he is expected to be less disapproving, less authoritarian, less formal, more friendly and accommodation may be appealing. Having gone through all these, we see that such human phenomenon no longer exists in Enugu state public schools and that is the reason why education viz a viz learning is foreseen to be relegated to the background.
All the qualities highlighted above which are deemed as techniques every teacher is expected of is lacking and may be environmentalist in nature or humanistic. Be that as it may this study may proffer solution for them
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the major challenges facing effective teaching and learning in Nigeria is non-availability of qualified teachers. Statistics have shown
that our tertiary institution and teaches training institutions have been yearly mass producing and doling out teachers at astronomical quantum, yet their impacts are not felt at the classroom and examination level. The performance of our students in the 2009 WAEC and NECO examinations has not been impressive. In the last 2009 NECO General Certificate Examination (GCE), only 1-8 percent of the 236,613 that sat for the examinations across 1,708 centres in the country has five credit passes, mathematics and English language inclusive. In the same year, the candidates that sat for the senior secondary school examinations did not do any better. Out of the 1,373,009 candidates that failed the examinations, 25.99 percent of them had five credit passes in five subjects, mathematics and English language inclusive. On the other hand, out of 1,184,907 candidates that sat for May/June 2009 NECO, only 10.68 percent has credit passes in five subjects including Mathematics and English which are acceptable basic standards for admission into tertiary institution. Also in 2008, only 13.76 percent of the 1,369,142 candidates that sat for the May/June WASSCE had credit passes in five subjects including mathematics and English. (Federal Bureau of Statistics F.B.I 2010) narrowing it down to Enugu state due to the present changes and alterations going on, 6,3334 system to the 9,3,4 system which did not give room for students that failed to repeat classes so that they can improve, the carryover that is witnessed at the junior class level is the migraine facing the policy formulations of education at the higher level. Enugu state, in the just concluded junior WAEC result, out of 1,205,268 that sat for the examination only 28,42 past English and mathematics. This mathematically represents about 12% (percent) performance. Analysis apportion the problem to lack of qualified teachers.
Despite the recent performances of WAEC/NECO and junior WAEC candidates, stakeholders believe that this is a further proof that all is not well with our educational sectors. Post primary educational sector has had its share of problems. In 2008 for instance, the sector was affected by a 10 – week nationwide industrial action embarked upon by the Nigeria union of teachers (N.U.T) that resulted in the alteration of school calendars. Tell May 17 2010). Inadequate funding has hampered the future and sustenance of education in our land. The private sector could not courageously help the government to shoulder the responsibility of funding its schools. According to the United nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO agreement of which Nigeria is signatory in 1998, it stipulates and recommends 26 percent allocation of a nation’s budget to education sector. But presently the sector is being allocated less than 15 percent in Nigeria.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Depending on the nature of the activities in which the teacher engages, he is likely to meet children of different classes, interest and background for the inculcation of virtues and knowledge. The significance of this study is to profer solution on how half-baked teachers should be phased out in the annals of the teaching environment so that our children, students/pupils will no longer have stunted growth in terms of educational development. It will also suggest ways in which the teacher and the students will improve most especially as it relates to the teaching of the English language. This will seriously reduce mind boggling results we witness these days at the lower level.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following are our research questions
- Do we lack qualified teachers in English language in Enugu zone
b. Are there witnesses of poor performance in English language in Enugu zone.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this work revolves round the teacher, students, secondary schools in Enugu zone and more importantly the government who are the arrow head of school management in the state privately established and approved schools in Enugu zone are not included “but only schools owned by government are used.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
One of the major challenges that faced the researchers is the inability to reach all the government owned secondary schools in Enugu zone. For lack of funds the researchers confined themselves to five secondary schools. Also during this rainy period access to some school that are situated in the hinter land is bit more difficult and affected adversity the administration of questionnaires
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher
H0: lack of qualified English language teachers does not have any effect on student academic performance
H1: lack of qualified English language teachers does have a effect on student academic performance
H02: poor performance of students on English language is not a product of unqualified English language teacher
H2: poor performance of students on English language is a product of unqualified English language teacher
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
AVAILABILITY OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS IN EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL>
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