1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on audience perception of pidgin English usage in broadcast media. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Radio kogi, Lokoja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made broadcasters, editors, production managers and senior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
The term Pidgin English or Nigeria Pidgin otherwise known as Brokin English is a term used to denote an English based pidgin; a marginal language used among Nigerians to facilitate communication needs in certain interaction contexts. Like any other pidgin language in other cultural climes where the language is not native to its users. According to Marshal (1950) cited in Abiola (2010) says, language is a means of communication via which myriad of message are transmitted day by day. Nigerian pidgin is contact language that emerged from the fusion of indigenous languages and foreign language (English). Supporting this view, Elugbe and Omamor (1991), cited in Temitope (2012) in their attempt to define pidgin, see it as “some kind of a marginal language that arises to fulfill specific communication needs in well-defined circumstances.”The above definition shows that pidgin is not an official language, but a marginal language used for communication especially by people who do not speak each other’s language. Writing further, Elugbe and Omamor, quoting Hall (1966), stated two conditions for a language to be qualified as pidgin. In their submission, for a language to be pidgin, “Its grammatical structure and its vocabulary must be sharply reduced; secondly, the resultant language must be native to none of those who use it” (Elugbe and Omamor, 1991). In consonance with the above position, Temitope (2012) quoting Rickford (1998) said: A pidgin usually combines elements of the native language of its users and is typically simpler than those native languages in so far as it has fewer words, less morphology, and a more restricted range of phonological and syntactic options. Rickford’s excerpt to some extent is contextually applicable to Nigerian pidgin in the sense that its phonological, morphological and grammatical structures are basically restricted compared to any other standard language. In addition to this, its social communicative functions are usually limited to the verbal and informal settings. Though scholars like Rickford (1998) are of the view that “a pidgin is sharply restricted in social role, used for limited communication between speakers of two or more languages who have repeated or extended contacts with each other, for instance through trade, enslavement or migration,” such position on pidgin is not generally applicable to all pidgins. The sociolinguistic reality in Nigeria today reveals that Nigerian pidgin is not used only in informal settings, but also in other formal settings (Akande, 2008). Other places where pidgin is now common is on the media especially in television and radio programme presentation, comedy presentation, advertisement and jingle production among other forms of programmes. To this end, the research examines audience perception of Pidgin English usage in broadcast media: Radio Kogi, Lokoja.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The use of Pidgin English otherwise known as Broken English is creating a decline in the use of pure, correct English language to the extent that students and teachers that supposed to be speaking good English language are now speaking pidgin because they believe they can speak the language anywhere because broadcast media use the same on programmes. The English speakers use it unconsciously in some former occasions that demanded use of pure English language. On the other hand, many audiences who speak Pidgin English very often find it difficult to understand broadcasting message that are disseminated in pure English language and as such, try to ignore such information. They find it difficult to give a satisfactory and accurate meaning of the communicated messages on pure English language. In view of this, the research aims at finding out audience perception of Pidgin English usage in broadcast media: Radio Kogi Fm, Lokoja.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To know whether audience understands messages disseminated in Pidgin English more than in Standard English.
- To determine the effect of using Pidgin English on audience.
- To find out whether Pidgin English poses problem when used as a language in broadcast.
- To ascertain the reasons for Pidgin English popularity among audience.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: audience do not understands messages disseminated in Pidgin English more than in Standard English.
H1: audience understands messages disseminated in Pidgin English more than in Standard English.
H02: there is no effect of using Pidgin English on audience.
H2: there is effect of using Pidgin English on audience.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will benefit different people, media practitioners, organization, students and other agencies. Media practitioners will through the findings of this research come to realize the benefit of using the popular language that their audience speak or understand. It will form part of the research materials that will be used in the future especially those that will be working on the related topic or aspect. The research will be value to students and scholars of mass communication and people who are seeking knowledge on the influence of language on broadcast media audience.
1.6. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study examined the audience perception of Pidgin English usage in broadcast media at radio kogi 94.0Fm as the study area. Due to time factor and funds, the study is limited to the residence of kogi state.
Therefore, the staff of radio kogi FM, lokoja will serve as source of primary data for the study. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pidgin English: Pidgin English also known as Broking English is the mixing of English language with native language. Without English structure and grammatical rule. Such as no wahala.
Broadcasting media: This is a form of electronic media such as radio kogi FM that disseminated information, programmes to the audience in kogi state.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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