ASSESSEMENT OF THE PROVISION, UTILISATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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Abstract

This studyassessed Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State. Objectives of the study were toascertain the provision, utilization and maintenance of infrastructural facilities, teaching facilities, learning facilities, welfare facilities and recreational and games facilities in secondary schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger state. Related literatures of concepts in relation to the study were reviewed. The research was conducted using the descriptive survey research design. Seventy five itemquestionnaire tagged (PUMOFQ) using likert rating scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD) was used to gather data. The instrument was validated by my supervisors, pilot tested and a reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained.Sample population of 300 Participants (137 Principals and 163 Teachers) were used, the sample was taken using judgmental/purposive sampling technique. Five null hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi-Squareat 0.05 level of significance. The researchfindings revealed that, infrastructural facilities, teaching facilities, learning facilities, welfare facilities and recreational and games facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and KutigiEducational Zones in Niger State were not adequately provided, the available ones were under-utilized and were poorly maintained. Recommendations were made which included that; Government who is the key player in providing and maintaining such facilities should not by-pass school principals and teachers. Host communities and Parent Teachers Association of the schools should also hold periodical consultation with principals and teachers aiming at complimenting governments’ efforts. Principals and Teachers should be faithful and patriotic when managing the fund meant for provision and maintenance of Educational facilities.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

There are growing concerns among Education stakeholders and Practitioners about the present poor state of Infrastructural facilities available for teaching and learning in Secondary Schools across the Country. There are calls for the need to re-vamp the Educational sector to address the concerns of the citizenry and comply with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These calls, gave rise to the current educational reforms of the Federal Government.

Documentary research evidences revealed that facilities and resources for teaching and learning in schools are grossly inadequate and sometimes inappropriate. Nwadiani (2001) observed that the facilities are not only over utilized, they are also poorly maintained. UNESCO (1998) further stressed that monitoring of the learning achievement report on the available instructional materials in the 960 sampled schools across the country revealed that chalkboard and chalk were the only materials reported as being adequately available in the schools. According to Ajayi (2007) and Okebukola (2002), effective teaching/learning process cannot be guaranteed with inadequate instructional materials. Oladipo (2001) observed that Nigerians have not developed the culture of maintaining facilities, especially public utilities, Aminu (1986) in Abdulkareem andFasasi (2010) accused Nigerian schools of poor strategic planning in their physical development. There are growing concerns among Education stakeholders and Practitioners about the present poor state of Infrastructural facilities available for teaching and learning in Secondary Schools across the Country. There are calls for the need to re-vamp the Educational sector to address the concerns of the citizenry and comply with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These calls, gave rise to the current educational reforms of the Federal Government. Documentary research evidences revealed that facilities and resources for teaching and learning in schools are grossly inadequate and sometimes inappropriate. Nwadiani (2001) observed that the facilities are not only over utilized, they are also poorly maintained. UNESCO (1998) further stressed that monitoring of the learning achievement report on the available instructional materials in the 960 sampled schools across the country revealed that chalkboard and chalk were the only materials reported as being adequately available in the schools. According to Ajayi (2007) and Okebukola (2002), effective teaching/learning process cannot be guaranteed with inadequate instructional materials. Oladipo (2001) observed that Nigerians have not developed the culture of maintaining facilities, especially public utilities, Aminu (1986) in Abdulkareem andFasasi (2010) accused Nigerian schools of poor strategic planning in their physical development. He observed that in certain schools, laboratories were dusty, bottles of chemicals were left open on the benches, unlabeled. In addition, the few cupboards had suffered leaks and were dismantled and were doubtful if any practical work could go on under such 2 conditions. Mbakwem and Asiabaka (2007) lamented the unhealthy nature of the buildings: uncompleted, old and antiquate, sometimes dilapidated buildings, overcrowded and unconducive classrooms and unhygienic toilet, inadequate laboratories and workshops. Adehinde (1997) in Mari (2010) observed that poor maintenance culture and at the same times attitude of some school heads towards facilities and equipment, calls for alternative efforts at making teaching and learning what it is supposed to be. Nwadiani (2001) observed that the facilities are not only over utilized they are also poorly maintained. Similarly, in a study of Aibgoje (2007) found that some school facilities were inadequate while others are not available at all. Hughes and Ubben (1990) in Yusuf and Akinniranye (2011) emphasized that in order to make optimal utilization of facilities in schools, School personnel and members of the community should have the knowledge of the functioning of such facilities and the alternative uses to which they could be put. Without such knowledge, some items will be underutilized; some will be over utilized while others will not be utilized at all. A study of overcrowded schools in New York City found that in such schools students scored significantly lower both in mathematics and reading exams than did similar students in schools. In addition, when asked, students and teachers in overcrowded schools agreed that overcrowding negatively affected both classroom activities and instructional techniques. (Reversa-Batizand Marti, 1995). In Khan and Iqbal (2012) found that overcrowding and heavy teacher workloads created stressful working conditions for teachers and led to higher teacher absenteeism. American association of School Administrators (1999) reported that the students were more likely to 3 prosper when their environment was conducive to learning. Environmentally responsive heating air conditioning and ventilation systems, either in new or renovated schools, provide a more comfortable learning environment. A recent report, evaluating school facilities in Milwaukee (2000) completed by the Council of Education Facilities Planners International documented that, ‚ÄěFacility condition had a stronger effect on student‚Äüs performance than the combine influence of family background socio-economic status, school attendance and behavior‚Äü. Jimoh (2010) proper utilization of facilities provided the teachers with interesting platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more and more. Ema and Ajayi (2004) found that, ‚ÄúTeaching equipment and materials have changed over the years not only to facilitate learning situation but to also to address the instructional needs of individuals and groups‚ÄĚ. Bolick (2003) argued that ‚Äěwhile some educators have been fascinated by the potential of instructional materials to enhance teaching and learning, some teachers are lagged behind in utilizing instructional materials during teaching and learning‚Äü. As a result of the identified problems, the attention of many scholars and educators have continued to be directed towards the search on variables such as provision, utilization and maintenance of facilities for teaching and learning among other variables. Ezewu (1983), Bloom (1978), Mccabe et al (1975) in Wasagu (2005) were of the view that a well-designed functional schools building with a wide array of teaching aids provides effective delivery of the school curriculum and are positively related to academic achievements. 4 Xaba (2011), Xaba and Ngubane (2010), Chaka (2008), Grant-Lewis and Naidoo(2006), Naidoo (2005) observed that, one of the functions of the school governing bodies as prescribed by the South African Schools Act 1996, is the adequate provision, maintenance and proper utilization of facilities, which by its very nature is a specialized function that requires specialist knowledge and skills to execute. Much research efforts both local and international have been put on some of these variables, while not particularly explored in South Africa and Nigeria, the significance of facilities maintenance to school functionality is recognized worldwide to the extent that many education departments have dedicated organizational structures or units responsible for facilities maintenance , provision and management and it is reported in numerous international studies (Victoria State Government Department of Education and Training, 2006; Alberta Learning Facilities Branch,2004;Mearing Crittenden, Morgan & Guess, 1991;Organisation of American States General Secretariat, 1990). For example Asiabaka (2008) wrote about the need for effective facility provision, management and uses in schools in Nigeria; while Baltimore County public schools (2007) in Xaba (2012) office of strategic planning published a handbook entitled ‚Äěcomprehensive maintenance of school buildings for schools in the Caribbean. Szuba and Young (2003) wrote a comprehensive planning guide for maintaining school facilities. Facilities maintenance is also beginning to be recognized in South Africa, with, firstly, its prescription as school governance function in the school Act and secondly, with the recent proclamation of the schedule for the National Policy for equitable provision of 5 enabling school physical teaching and learning environment. (Republic of South Africa, 2008: 25), which states in section 4. 107: If well maintained and managed, they (school facilities) provide conducive environments that translate into quality education. If well maintained and utilized. They can realize substantial efficiency gains… However, it does appear from the above background to the study that provision, utilization and maintenance of facilities for teaching and learning requires study. Since no study available to the researcher that has investigated the combined ‚ÄúAssessment of the provision, utilization and maintenance of facilities for Teaching and learning in secondary school in Bida and Kutigi educational zones of Niger State.In the light of its significance, it is necessary that facilities provision, utilization and maintenance be accorded priority as part of school programs aimed at promoting teaching and learning goals and effectiveness. In this regard, the researcher I argue that this is a specialist function and should be assigned to professional facilities-provision and maintenance staff as opposed to being allocated to lay school governors. Since no studies in Niger State to explore or investigate the combined ‚Äěprovision, utilization and maintenance of facilities for teaching and learning, the researcher sought therefore to explore this phenomenon particularly in secondary schools in Bida and Kutigi educational zones of Niger State.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The National Policy on Education of Nigeria (2004) stipulates: Education and training facilities will be multiplied and made more assessable to afford the individual a far more diversified and flexible choice of teaching methods (7 (3). 6 Section 4: Secondary Education: stipulates that, government will ensure that all Schools are properly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching and learning and in particular, that the suitable textbooks and libraries are provided to schools. To this end, funds are being provided for school libraries, textbooks and equipment. That Federal Government will after consultation with States set up a national Committee to advice on the production of suitable textbooks and instructional materials for the whole federation. Government will set up an audio-visual aid development Centre in the Federal Ministry of Education in Kaduna and will continue to provide funds in order to expand its facilities so as to bring services within the reach of each school. (1985: 12-14 in Usman (2006). On the stipulations above, we need to note: The philosophy of Nigerian education seems not to be unaware of scarcity and need for school facilities. Nevertheless, the effort has not yielded dividend since the problem persist, with new vigor, most likely due to explosive school population and lack of maintenance and repair culture. These two factors top the list in impoverishing schools with facilities. Others are theft, poor contract arrangement coupled with insincerity by both parties, fire outbreak and so on. The ratio of 1:2000 media to students cannot afford the individual a diversified and flexible choice. Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) further explained that, the situation in one secondary school to the other and to some tertiary institutions are not much different as can be judged from the availability of basic facilities. According to Okebukola (2002) and Ajayi (2007), effective teaching/learning process cannot be guaranteed with inadequate instructional materials. In the area of plant 7 utilization and maintenance, Oladipo (2001) found that, Nigerians have not developed the culture of maintaining facilities, especially public utilities. The study therefore critically looked at the roles adequate Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Educational Facilities play on Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones of Niger State

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are stated objectives the study is been conducted.

  1. i) ascertain the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Infrastructural facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State;
  2. ii) determine the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Teaching Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State;

iii) examine the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Learning Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State;

  1. iv) determine the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Welfare facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State; and
  2. v) examine the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Recreational and Games Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher

H0: There is no significant difference in the Opinions of Principals and Teachers on the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Infrastructural Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State.

H1: There is a significant difference in the Opinions of Principals and Teachers on the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Infrastructural Facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State.

H0: There is no significant difference in the Opinions of Principals and Teachers on the provision, utilization and maintenance of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State.

H2: There is a significant difference in the Opinions of Principals and Teachers on the provision, utilization and maintenance of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Bida and Kutigi Educational Zones in Niger State

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study are beneficial to educational administrators and planners such as school heads (principals), head masters, teachers, local education secretaries, directors and heads of education departments, parastatals, and institutions in the state. The result of the study will give educational administrators the much needed information on best practices of the provision, maximum utilization and maintenance of facilities for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Niger State and the Nation at large. It is hoped that the result from the findings of this research study would be equally of immense significance to curriculum planners as they plan program of study in schools.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers an assessment of the provision, utilization and maintenance of facilities in secondary schools. But in the cause of the studies, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Provision

In financial accounting, a provision is an account which records a present liability of an entity. The recording of the liability in the entity’s balance sheet is matched to an appropriate expense account in the entity’s income statement.

Utilization

utilization or operational stage of a system or equipment life-cycle is a period of time when their quality is realized in practical use to achieve intended objectives and supported by accomplishment of storage, maintenance, repair,

Facility

Facility management is a professional management discipline focused upon the efficient and effective delivery of support services for the organizations that it serves

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

 



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