This research work was carried out in order to find out what the populace of Enugu Urban thinks or feel about television programmes in Enugu state. The research also attempted to look into other people’s work related to the research topic.
In doing this; the work is systematically ranged in fine chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction, which contains background of the study, problem statement, objective of the study, significance of the study, research question, research hypothesis definition of terms and limitation of study.
Chapter two deals with the literature review. Chapter three deals with the research methodology in which survey method was used.
Chapter four deals with data analysis and results.
Chapter five deals with findings, conclusion and recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Preface & Acknowledgement ii
List of tables’ v
Approval page vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Objective of the study
- Significance of study
- Research Questions
- Research Hypothesis
- Limitation of study
- Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
- Literature review
2.2 Summary of literature
2.3 References for literature review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
- Research method
- Research design
- Research sample
- Data collection
- Method for Data analysis
- Measuring instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
- Data analysis
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDING AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Television broadcasting was first introduced in 1930s as an “expected occurrence. Since then, television has been growing as a medium of mass communication.
In 1959, Nigeria first television was established at Ibadan on the account of denial of access to Chief Obafemi Awolowo and his party to defend his party from the accusation of the federal government through National Broadcasting Commission NBC).
Television as a medium of mass communication is composed of highly heterogeneous audience / viewers with distinctive features, different socio-economic strata and different interests.
Based on the heterogeneity of audience, it is obvious that preference of medium as well as the content of the mass will differ among members of mass media audience. While some use a particular station or programmed, others depend on the other. Some may want to watch entertainment programmers like News, current Affairs, Commentaries or documentaries depending on their likes.
One of the obvious ways in which an audience is active is through the use of selective exposure. It is the tendency of accepting to expose you to communication that goes with your own value system, attitudes and viewpoints. The concept of self-selective exposure helps the watches, what he listens to and read; selevctive watching, selective attention and selective reading and listening are the functions of selective exposure.
You can buy the newspaper of your choice, you can go to mollies you like, you can choose from many television programmers and radio, and if you find yourself watching something you do not like, you can tune to another channel.
Different views have been presented in an attempt to determine why people watch a programmed. This can be identified with the following, selective exposure which include selective perception, selective retention and selective interpretation and the escapism.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Television has been acclaimed as one of the dependable means of communication, and the role of television is to inform, educate and entertain. Among other functions of television are socialization, integration, debate and discussion.
However, some stations fulfill these objectives or aims more than other stations. The extent to which television programmers are watched, is partly a function of the disposition of the audience members toward such a station. The Enugu Urban populace constitutes a considerable segment of television audience in Nigeria.
The need for audience analysis of their nature, therefore, cannot be over-emphasized.
There is the tendency for viewers to select the type of station or programmers they watch.
Most audience research findings suggest that economic factors and demographic factors influence television viewer’s original disposition and some other factors have been identified as reasons for different viewing habits of television audience.
This study will be concerned with determining television programmers that have the widest viewer ship among the populace the factor for the preference of one television programmer over others will also be examined in the survey.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study hinges on the viewer ship of television programmers by the populace of Enugu urban as the case study. This study has a double aim, firstly, it is an attempt to examine the attitudinal and behavioral dispositions of the populace toward television programmers, and its intended to inquire and find out what aroused their viewer ship habit to a particular programmer or station.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
It is important to realize that for information to have any substantial impact influence and effect on the society, also to make people perform, accept, or reject certain innovations, the medium trough which such information comes must possess credibility. Also, the audience of the mass media is diverged, anonymous, and widespread and comprises of various political, social, economic and interest groups of which the Enugu Urban populace are among.
In addition, since the credibility of the media is a function of perception of their audience, and when the public do not e believe the information they receive from the news media or think the media are omitting important facts, there will be increased reliance on informal sources for information, and the consequences can be very serious.
Since the mass media and their audience are highly inter-related and inter- dependent, every station should strive to command a favourable attitude in the eyes of its audience. It is imperative also for every broadcaster to know who his audience is. His rating among them, what they think of him, his station and its programmers, whether the rating of his programmers and station are high or low. He can improve on his performance and this will enhance his image and the credibility of his station.
The need of this study therefore is to find out the television viewing habits / attitudes of the Enugu urban populace towards television programmers. This habit / attitude survey is very crucial in determining the effects of television programmed on selected audience, because it is only after a subject had observed the effects of phenomenon that the subject can form a reasonable attitude towards that phenomenon.
According to Parker (1974):
“The Saner each new technology is studied the greater the chances of bringing to use the research results to influence policy in a meaningful way”.
From this, it can be deduced that it is necessary to examine the television viewing habits or attitude of the populace. Since it is when this knows that the station should be in a position to plan and structure its programmers to appeal to both its enlightened and audience.
From the findings of the research other electronic media will see the need to structure their programmers in a way that would generate positive responses from their audience. It is also hoped that this will serve as a stimulant for further investigation by interested professionals.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Does Enugu urban Area audience view television programmers telecast?
- Do residents in Enugu Urban pay more attention to a particular programmed on television?
- Does television viewing have any specific impact on the audience?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The writer intends to make the following postulations to keep abreast with the objective of the research proposals.
HO There is no viewing habit of television programmers by the populace in Enugu urban.
H1 There is viewing habit of Television programmers by the populace in trough state.
H0 Occupation and time do not determine the viewing habit of the populace.
H1 Occupation and time determine the view habits of the population.
H0 Quality of programmers does not affect the viewing habit.
H1 Quality of programmers affects the viewing habit.
- LIMITATION OF STUDY
The researcher intends to make a study of the viewer ship of television programmers but owing to certain circumstances envisaged, the study of viewer ship in Enugu urban had to be taken. The study to be limited to only Enugu urban include Time factors which was considered in adequate for the study and also the economic constraints.
The researcher also noticed or believes that the Television programmers and viewer ship is faceted with almost the same problems of under-development through out the country. Therefore it is assumed that since such is the case, a study within Enugu urban will be adequate.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: a piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you can watch programmers with morning pictures as sounds.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: It is a system of transmitting and receiving audiovisual broadcast programmed through the airwaves.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: Somebody’s way of doing things especially that which cannot easily be given up.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Audience dispositions towards television programmers.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: A way of feeding thinking or behaviour among human beings.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: The behaviour of audience towards television programmers.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: Dissemination of information, ideas, opinion, etc through the airwave to the audience.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: The process of making and sending out Radio and Television programmers to the heterogeneous audience through electromagnetic waves.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: it is being able to watch and hear or trying to watch something.
It is the tendency of willingly exposing you to communication that accord with your own value system, attitude and viewpoint.
it is tending to see what you want to see in a message and reject a contradictory one.
Interpreting messages according to pre-disposition and bias.
SELECTIVE RETENTION OR RECALL
Trying to retain in your memory a massage or aspect of messages that appeals to you, and to recall such messages or aspects when necessary’
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: AN ACTIVITY,
A form of entertainment that helps you avoids or forgets unpleasant or boning things.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Habit of escape from unpleasant realities into a world of fallacy.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: The activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving people information.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Sharing of experience and ideas, among people. Mass communications therefore is the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes to a relatively large and diversified audience simultaneously.
- Betherfiead, J.B.& Napier, E.C.: The American media Behaviour,
Stand ford university press, 1960.
- Copper, N.C.& Dinnemans: The Effect of mass communication,
Am old publishers press, 1951.
- Freedman L.& Seas M.N:
Selection Exposure, MacLean
Hunter ltd, 1965.
- Mac quail. D.: Mass communication and
Society, an old publisher
Ltd, London, 1977.
- Anyaegbudike .Y. Radio/Television production
& Broadcasting in Nigeria
Vigil publishers, Enugu, 2002
- Money A.S.: Oxford Advanced learner’s
Dictionary, Oxford University
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
A SURVEY OF THE VIEWERSHIP OF TELEVISION PRGRAMMES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU URBAN)>
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