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The Civil Service as the machinery of Government performs the unique role of governance and National development as such government everywhere in the world have come to terms with the need to train and re-train it’s hum resource for them to be better equipped to maximize productivity levels and meet the challenges of governance and management. This work makes use of the system theory as the theoretical framework and data gathered from secondary sources. My chapter one began with the general introduction where we have the background of study, statement of problem, objective of study, significance of study, literature review, significance of the study, theoretical framework, hypotheses, method of data collection and analysis, scope and limitation of study, operationalization of concept. In chapter two, we looked at human resource and productivity in the Nigerian civil service: a historical perspective. In chapter three, we looked at how impediments such as corruption, faulty implementation of the principle of federal character, inadequate fund and experienced training staff all impede in productivity. Chapter four dealt with the strategies for human resource development and productivity in Kogi State Civil Service. Finally chapter five, ended this work with summary, conclusion and recommendation. Using KogiState Civil Service as a  point of appraisal, this work hopes to link human resources training and development to their productivity level. In consequence I am of the view that lack of adequate training and re-training of staff has resulted to low productivity. In view of this I recommend that impediments such as godfatherism, corruption, nepotism should be repudiated in order to increase the level of productivity and quality service delivery.






Title page

Approval page




Table of content



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study




3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis



4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation













  • Background of the study

The problem of  human  resource  development  and productivity in Nigeria civil service has become very severe such that the civil service is at the point of collapse due to challenges of civil service delivery, over centralization amongst others. To Collins and Chan (2009) in addition to fixing many such other key problems of development, Nigeria state has an urgent problem of disposing her workforce to cope with the demands of the society. The origin, structure and performance of the civil service dates back to the 20th century, with the introduction of the British colonial rule in Nigeria. By 1990, a decentralized colonial service with headquarters in each of the protectorate was established. By 1904, the colony of Lagos state was amalgamated with the protectorate of Southern Nigeria. This was followed by the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate in 1914 bringing into existence a country called Nigeria. By  1914,  there  were  two  civil  services  in  the  two Nigeria’s (Northern and Southern)- h general in the person of Lord Lugardand two lieutenant

Governors each for the North and South respectively, while an administrator was in charge of Lagos. The British imposed a unified civil service in Nigeria, which was mainly concerned with the maintenance of law and order and the mobilization of enough local resources in order to ensure their administration was self-sufficient. According to Ciroma (1988:5): The Nigerian civil service began as a force of occupation designed to facilitate colonial rule and the exploitation of land and its people for the benefit of the colonial masters. The 2nd World War and the attendant worldwide depression left the civil service hopelessly  depleted as the civil service played major role of being an essential tool and veritable source of men and material of the allied war efforts. In 1936, the Walayns committee recommended a new policy of staffing the public service by indigenes and for the first time the administrative service which was the cream of colonial services was thrown open to Nigerians. The Nigerianization scheme went a stage further with the appointment of the foot commission of 1948, the commission observed that the training and recruitment of Nigerians for senior post in the government services was not only necessary to enable Nigerians to take part in the management of their own affairs but also required to enable them keep pace with the constitutional development and programs in the country. Richard constitution of 1946 marked a significant milestone in the history of the civil service in Nigeria, first, it marked the beginning of the regionalization of the hitherto unitary civil service as some attempts were made to regionalize the central department. Regionalization of the civil service took the form of transforming some of the central departments operating in the three regions into non-central departments headed by deputy directors responsible to the director in Lagos.

The Macpherson constitution of 1951 further extended the regionalization policy as more Central Departments were regionalized. The 1954 constitution provided for a full-fledged regional civil services as well as the central (federal) civil service. It brought in the wake many structural changes which were of great significance in the public service commission in the regions as well as at the center. These commissions were granted full powers by the same constitution to appoint, promote, dismiss and discipline junior civil servants. The nationalist agitation for independence brought about the introduction of the Nigerianization policy. The essence of this policy was to make Nigerian civil service entirely staffed, managed and controlled by Nigerians themselves (Omotosho, 2001). To Okunade(1990: The civil servants that occupied positions were   unprepared.

They   lacked the necessary training initiative and administrative acumen.

Consequently, the level of productivity in the civil service waned dangerously. Also, Nicolson (1969) noted that Nigerians administrative legacy was one of chaos rather than order and tidiness. There was excessive centralization and absence of delegation. Above all, civil servants for the first two decades after independence were corrupt, inefficient and unproductive. In the face of this alarming decrease in productivity in the civil service, several steps have been taken by successive Nigerian government to strategically position and reposition human resource administration in the country. Such steps include but are not limited to the setting up of the various commissions for reforming the civil service including the Morgan constitution of 1963, Adebo commission of 1971, Udoji commission of 1974 amongst others Following the 1974 Udoji report, the civil service was reformed comprehensively, strategically readjusted and strengthened to respond effectively to the demands of developed. Abubakar (1992: 42) opined that:

Human resource development is the sin-quo-non for the attainment of efficiency and effectiveness which are the two major goals/objectives of a good civil service. The implication is that, the government of the Nigeria civil service before 1994 had been very low. Therefore, utmost need was for qualified and motivated staff at the right place and at the right time to achieve the objectives to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personal management. Accordingly, the Udoji reform of 1977 saw human resource development as the main vehicle for enhancing efficiency in the civil service. While the 1978 civil service reform favoured professionalism through human resource training and development as a way of getting into the top cadre of the civil service. To Ayeni (1991: 123): These reforms saw human resource training and development for the professionalization initiative of government. This according to him is because, It is through experience and training and familiarity that an administration can build any measure of expertise that will set him apart from his colleagues in or outside administration. Furthermore, to him, the 1988 civil service made it imperative for every incumbent or office holder to possess requisite knowledge and skill and attitudinal tendencies in job activity was instructed and recommended in government services. Accordingly it is agreed that in order to enhance socio-economic development and facilitate efficiency and effectiveness in government business, the performance standard of employees must be uplifted to the minimum level of proficiency. To this therefore ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the training of employees in or under the ministry. In the wake of democracy, after decades of military rule, the Obasanjo regime in 1999 set up a body to reform the public sector/services especially in the employment of qualified graduates. The Bureau of public service chaired by Mallam El-Rufai was empowered to review the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the employment of about one thousand, five hundred graduates with first class and second class university degrees. Unlike in the past, it became dynamic and effective, as civil servants were allowed to perform their traditional duty which is to advice and to implement policies of government (The Punch, May 2,)




The term human resource management (HRM) is concerned with the management of people in an organization. The Nigerian public sector has been seen to suffer for decades mainly because of lack of human resources management practice. It is believed that Nigerian public enterprises did not recognize the strategic roles of the human resource managers in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies. The position of employees‟ management in the workplace has really been ignored in the nation’s‟ owned companies. In other words, human resource management has not been handled as a valuable resource in the Nigerian public firms. Of course, this act has resulted in the slowdown of productivity in the country’s public sectors. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to assess human resource development and productivity in the civil service.


The main objective of the study is to assess human resource development and productivity in the civil service; but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objective;

  1. To ascertain the impact of human resource development on the productivity of civil service
  2. To examine the role of human resource development on the effectiveness of Nigerian civil service
  • To examine the relationship between human resource development and the productivity of the civil service
  1. To ascertain the effect of human resource development on the efficiency of civil servant

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

H0: there is no significant relationship between human resource development and the productivity of the civil service

H1: there is a significant relationship between human resource development and the productivity of the civil service

H0: human resource development does not play any significant role on the effectiveness of Nigerian civil service

H2: human resource development does play a significant role on the effectiveness of Nigerian civil service


It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of the Nigeria civil service as the study seek to explore the merit of effective human resource development and productivity in the Nigerian civil service, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies. Finally, the study will be of great importance to students, teachers, academia’s lecturers and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter.


The scope of the study covers an assessment of human resources development and productivity in the civil service, but in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider      coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities        and examinations with the study.
  3. c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the        researcher has other academic bills to cover.


Human resource development

Human resource development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities


Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process

Human resource management

Human resource management is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly referred to as the HR Department, it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer’s strategic objectives

Civil service

A¬†civil servant¬†or public¬†servant¬†is a person employed in¬†the public¬†sector on behalf of a government department or agency. The extent of¬†civil servants¬†of a state as part of the “civil service” varies from country to country


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.



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